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Part V

 

 

Root / lemma: pik(h)o-

Meaning: lump, knot

German meaning: `klumpiges, Knoten'?

Material: Av. pixa- `Knoten' in nava-pixǝm `neunknotigen'; lett. piks, pika `Erd- and Lehmklumpen', sniega-pika `Schneeballen'.

References: WP. II 70.

Page(s): 830


Root / lemma: pi-lo-

Meaning: hair

German meaning: `Haar'

Material: Lat. pilus m. `hair', whereof as collective `Haarknäuel' also pila f. `Ball, Ballen, Strohpuppe'; auf einem s-stem based on *pil-s-os `verfilzt', in gr. πῖλος m. `Filz', πῑλέω `filze', lat. pilleus, -eum `Filzkappe, Filzmütze' (*pilsei̯o-); aksl. plъstь `Filz'.

References: WP. II 71, WH. II 302 f., 304 f.

Page(s): 830


Root / lemma: pi-n-

Meaning: a piece of wood

German meaning: `Holzstück'

Material: Old Indian pínakā-m `staff, stick, club, mace, joint'; gr. πίναξ, -ακος `Sparre, balk, beam, board, Schreibtafel, Gemalde'; ahd. witu-fîna f., mnd. vîne `Holzhaufen'; aksl. pьnь m., serb. pânj etc `tree truck, -strunk'.

References: WP. II 71; Vasmer 2, 335;

See also: probably to spei- `sharp, spitzes bit of wood'.

Page(s): 830


Root / lemma: pīp(p)-

Meaning: to squeak

German meaning: `piepen'

Comments: also unredupl. pī̆- with variant derivatives. onomatopoeic word

Material: Old Indian píppakā `ein certain bird', pippīka- `ein bird'? gr. πῖπος f. or πίππος m. `young bird', πῑπώ, πίπρα f. `a kind of Baumhacker', πιπ(π)ίζω `piepe'; lat. pīpilō, -āre, pīpiō, -īre, pīpō, -āre `piepen', pip(p)itāre `vom Naturlaut the Mäuse', pīpulum `das Wimmern', osk. pipatio `clamor plorantis', nhd. (nd.) piepen (with verhinderter consonant shift); lit. pỹpti `whistle' (Lw.?); èech. piptěti `piepsen', sloven. pípa `Huhn; duct, tube, pipe', serb. piра, eine disease, malady the Hühner' (nhd. Pips) etc;

    èech. pikati `piepen', under likewise; bulg. pile, skr. pïle `Küchlein' under likewise; similarly alb. bibë `young Wasservogel', arm. bibem `pigolare', gr. πίφιγξ, πιφαλλίς `ein bird'.

References: WP. II 70, WH. II 309; Vasmer 2, 363 f.

Page(s): 830


Root / lemma: pīzdā-

Meaning: vulva

German meaning: `vulva'

Grammatical information: f.

Material: Alb. pith (pidhi) m. `vulva'; èak. pizdà, russ. pizdá, poln. pizda ds., out of it borrows (?) lit. pyzdà, lett. pīzda f. ds., and apr. peisda `Arsch'.

References: WP. II 69, Trautmann 211;

See also: compare also pezd- S. 829.

Page(s): 831


Root / lemma: plab-

Meaning: to babble, etc.

German meaning: `plappern under likewise Schallvorstellungen'?

Material: Air. labar `redselig', cymr. llafar `language, sound', acorn. lauar `sermo', bret. lavar `word', ir. amlabar `stumm', cymr. aflafar, acorn. aflauar `infans', air. labraid, rel. labrathar `speaks', cymr. llafaru `talk, speak',

Maybe alb. llaf `word, speech', llafos `talk', llafazan `talkative'.

corn. lauaraf `I rede'; kelt. FlN Labarā ` Labor ' (Bayern); perhaps to ndd. mengl. flappen `hit, klatschen, schwatzen', engl. flap `hit';

Maybe illyr. TN Labeatae (Labeates) `talkative people, babblers '? : kelt. FlN Labarā ` Labor '

    in the kind of the onomatopoeic words Schallnachahmung jedenfalls different is lat. plōrāre `clamāre (alat.); loud weep, cry'.

Maybe truncated alb. *lápati, llap `chat, talk, speak', llaf `word, speech' [see above Root / lemma: lep-1 : (expr. Root)]

References: WP. II 93.

Page(s): 831


Root / lemma: plā-k-1: plǝ-k-, ple-k- : plō̆-k-, plei-k- and pelǝ-g- : plā-g- : plǝ-g-

Meaning: wide and flat

German meaning: `breit and flach, ausbreiten'

Comments: extension from pelǝ- S. 805

Material: Gr. πλάξ, -κός `surface, plain, area (of Meeres, eines Bergplateaus), Platte' (= aisl. flǣr Pl. from *flahiz), πλακόεις `platt', πλακοῦς, -οῦντος m. `flat Kuchen' (out of it lat. placenta) under likewise;

    lat. placeō, -ēre `gefallen, compliant sein', placidus `flat, eben, glatt, ruhig, friedlich', ablaut. plācāre `ebnen, besänftigen', nasalized perhaps plancus `Plattfuß';

    aisl. flā, Pl. flǣr (*flah-iz = πλάκ-ες) and flār (*flahō) f. `Absatz an einer Felswand', norw.flaa ds.; norw. flag n. `offene sea', aisl. flaga `dünne Erdschicht', mnd. vlage `Erdschicht'; zero grade aisl. flō (*flōhō) f. `Schicht, Lage', ags. flōh (stānes) f. `Steinfliese', ahd. fluoh, mhd. vluo `Felswand, jäh abstürzender Fels', nhd. Flühe, schweiz. Fluh, Flüh `Felswand, Felsplatte';perhaps germ. ō from idg. ō because of lett. pluoci m. Pl. `Lage, Schicht';

    lit. plãkanas `flat', plõkas `Estrich', plãkė `the lead, Bressem';

    lett. plāce `scapula', plācenis `flat Kuchen'; plùoku (*planku) plakt `flat become', plaka `Kuhfladen', plakans `flat';

    doubtful is die formale Beurteilung from lit. plókšèias `flat, platt', plaštakà `flat hand' (at first durch Dissim. from *plāskti̯os), lett. plāskaîns `glatt, flat and breit zugleich', aksl.ploskъ `flat' (*plā̆k-sko-);

    toch. AB plāk- `einverstanden sein', A plākäm `Erlaubnis', В plāki `Einverständnis', am-plākätte `ohne um Erlaubnis to bid, beg, ask';

    auf einer light root form *plek- based on probably lit. pleksnė̃ `breite Rübe', lett. pl'ęka (besides plaka `Kuhfladen'), plece `Plattfische, Butten', plęcs `shoulder', further:

    zero grades *pl̥kā́ f., kelt. *(p)lika in gall. Arelica (Gardasee), eig. `eastern from the Felsplatte from Sirmione', fass. lia `bottom of Backofens' (Hubschmid Zh. Pr. 66, 62 f.), expressives -kk- in mir. lecc `Steinplatte', cymr. llech, bret. lec'h ds.

    A i-root plei-k- in lit. pleikiù, pleĩkti `breit make', plaikstýti `die Oberkleider about Brust and Schultern, lüften', eig. `sich breit aufmachen'; to mhd. vlīen, vlīgen `schichtweise lay, place, fügen, sort, order, arrange, zurechtmachen, adorn', md. vlī(h)en ds.

    root form auf -g: gr. πέλαγος `offene sea' (`aequor'), wherefore die vorgriech. Bewohner the thessalischen Ebene, die Πελασγοί `Flachlandbewohner' (*πελαγ-σκοί); herald. πλάγος n. `Seite', τὰ πλάγια `die Seiten, Flanken', πλάγιος `(*die Seite zuwendend =) quer, slant, skew'; lat. plaga `surface, plain, area, Netz, Überzug; region, landscape ', plagula `BIatt einer Toga, leaf Papier', plagella `rag';

    nisl. flōki m., ags. flōc m. `Flunder', engl. flook-footed `plattfüßig'; ahd. flah (-hh-), ndl. flak, flach `glatt', as. flaka f. `Fußsohle', norw. flak n. `Scheibe, Eisscholle', aisl.flaki, fleki m. `Bretterverschlag', tirol.-kärnt. flecken `board, plank, balk'.

References: WP. II 90 f., WH. II 314 ff., Trautmann 222 f.; Vasmer 2, 365 f., 367.

Page(s): 831-832


Root / lemma: plāk-2, plāg- , also plēk-, plēg-

Meaning: to hit

German meaning: `schlagen'

Material: Gr. πλήσσω (*plāki̯ō), πλήγνῡμι `hit', πληγή, dor. πλᾱγα `blow, knock', πλῆκτρον `beetle, hammer etc'; nas. πλάζω (*πλαγγι̯ω) `hit, verschlage' (πλάγξω, ἐπλάγχθην); lat. plāga `blow, knock, wound', plangō, -ere `hit: die Hand auf die Brust hit, loud grieve '; mir. lēn, Gen. lēoin `affliction, wound' (*plakno-), léssaim `schlage violent' (*plang-sō); got. faiflōkun `ἐκόπτοντο, betrauerten', ags. flōcan `Beifall klatschen', as. flōcan `verwünschen, verfluchen' (at first from `loud die Brust hit'), ahd. fluohhon ds., fluoh `Fluch', aisl. flōki `gestampfter Filz'; from dem Germ. here probably also words for `Anprall, gust of wind' and `with den Flügeln hit, flutter, flicker': aisl. flaga `plötzlicher Anfall', mnd. mhd. vlage ` shove, attack, storm', engl. flaw `gust of wind, Sprung, crack'; aisl. flǫgra `flutter', ahd. flagarōn `umherfliegen'; with germ. k: aisl. flǫkra (flakurōn) `umherschweifen', mhd. vlackern, ndl. vlakkeren `flicker', ags. flacor `fliegend', flicorian `flicker', aisl. flǫkta (*flakutōn) `umherstreifen, flutter', expressive aisl. flakka `flutter, umherschweifen', older ndl. vlacken ` twitch '; nasalized mnd. vlunke (`Flügel'); aisl. flengja `thrash' (engl. fling `throw' from dem Aisl.), wherefore (?) lat. lancea `die originally spanische Lanze' (kelt. word);

    lit. plakù, plàkti `hit, chastise, castigate', plõkis m. `Rutenstreich'; aksl. plaèǫ, plakati sę `sich an die Brust hit, weep, cry, klagen';

    besides plāk/g- steht plēk/g-: lat. plectō, -ere `punish, curse, chastise, casttigate', lit. plíek-iu, -ti `hit, thrash, chastise, castigate', dial. plėgà `Prügel, Züchtigung'.

References: WP. II 91 ff., WH. II 315 f., 321 f., Trautmann 222 f.; Vasmer 2, 364 f.;

See also: probably to pelǝ-: plā- S. 805, also originally `breit hit'.

Page(s): 832-833


Root / lemma: plā̆t- (plā̆d-), plē̆t-, plō̆t-, plǝt-

Meaning: wide, flat

German meaning: `breit and flach; ausbreiten'

Comments: extension to pelǝ- : plā- ds., see there; to Vokalverhältnis compare plāk- : plēk- ds. and plāk- : plēk- : plĕk- `hit'

Material: Arischen *pleth-: Old Indian práthati `breitet from', -tē `dehnt sich from, verbreitet sich', pr̥thá- m. `flat hand', práthas- n. = av. fraϑah- n. ` Breite', Old Indian pr̥thú-, av. pǝrǝϑu- `wide, breit, geräumig', fem. Old Indian pr̥thvī́, av. pǝrǝϑ (also as Subst. `Oberfläche'), besides from *pl̥t(h)ǝu̯- : pr̥thivī́ f. `earth' (`Erdoberflache') = gr. Πλάταια, gall. GN Litavī f., gall.-lat. Letavia, leg.*Litavia, ncymr. Llydaw `die Bretagne', mir. Letha ds.;

    arm. lain `breit' (*pletǝ-no-).

    gr. πλατύς `platt, breit' (= Old Indian pr̥thú-), πλάτος n. `Breite' (reshuffling from *πλέτος = Old Indian práthas- after πλατύς), πλάτη `Ruderschaufel', ὠμο-πλάτη f. `scapula', πλάτανος `sycamore' (`breitästig'); πλαταμών `jeder flat Körper' (: Old Indian prathimán- m. `Breite, Ausdehnung'); πλαταγή `das Klatschen'; formal nicht recht clear, bright are παλαστή `flat hand', πλάστιγξ `flat bowl';

    lat. planta f. `Fußsohle' (*pla-n-tā); planta `Setzreis' is back-formation to *plantāre `den Boden ebnen';

    cymr. lled, corn. les, bret. let, led m. `Breite' (from dem n. *pletos = Old Indian práthas-), cymr. lledu, bret. ledaff ` outspread ', air. lethaim `dehne from, erweitere' (probably also air. leth n. `Seite' etc), Kompar. cymr. lled `wide, further' (*plet-is), air. letha `wide', Positiv*pl̥teno- in air. lethan, cymr. llydan, bret. corn. ledan `breit', gall. Litana (silva), Litano-briga; mir. leithe `shoulder' (*pleti̯ā), mir. lethech `Flunder'; air. less, cymr. llys `castle' (*pl̥t-to-?);

    in Germ. with ablaut. а : ō: mhd. vluoder `Flunder', nasalized mhd. nd. flunder ds., mnd.vlundere ds., ndl. vlonder `thin board', aisl. flyðra f. ` deadwood ', schwed. flundra ds., norw. also `small platter Stein'; germ. *flaÞōn in ahd. flado `Opferkuchen', mhd. vlade `wide, dünner Kuchen', nhd. Fladen, Kuh-fladen, norw. flade m. `small Ebene, flaches field'; mnd. vladder `dünne Torfschicht';

    lit. plõtyti ` outspread ', plótas `Platte', plõtis `Breite', lett. plãtît, plèst, thin aufstreichen'; aksl. *plastъ `tortum', russ. plast `Schicht' (root form *plāt-); lit. spleèiù, splė̃sti `breiten, breitlegen' (doubtful because of anl. s-, das in our family otherwise nirgends), platùs `breit' (a = o, different from πλατύς, pr̥thú-), plantù, plàsti `wide become', apr.plasmeno f. `Vorderhälfte the Fußsohle'; from the root form plĕt-: lit. plėtóti `sich ausbreiten', aksl. plesna `Fußsohle' (*plet-s-nā, to es-stem Old Indian práthas-); but slav. *plęsati `tanzen' because of lit. plęšti not here (*plenk̂-);

    aksl. plešte `shoulder', russ. pleèȅ ds. (russ. bělo-plekij `weißschultrig', neologism to pleèȅ = abg. plešte, compare above mir. leithe).

    With auslautender voiced-nonaspirated: aisl. flatr, ahd. flaz `eben, flat', as. flat `flat, untief' (full grade mnd. vlōt ds.), aisl.-ags. flett n., as. flet, fletti `Fußboden in Haus', ahd. flazzi, flezzi `geebneter bottom, Tenne, Hausflur, Vorhalle' (nhd. Flötz `ebene Bergschicht'); ahd. flazza `palm'; lett. plañdît `breit make'.

References: WP. II 99 f., WH. II 316 ff., 319 f., Trautmann 222 f., 225 f.

Page(s): 833-834


Root / lemma: plek̂-

Meaning: to plait, weave

German meaning: `flechten, zusammenwickeln'

Comments: presumably Weiterbildung from pel- `falten'

Material: Old Indian praśna- m. `netting, lurban' (also plā́śi- m. ` intestines, entrails '); av. ǝrǝzato frašnǝm `with silbernem Panzerhemd'; gr. πλέκω `flechte' (= lat. plicō), participle πλεκτός; πλεκτή `rope, cable, Netz', πλέγμα n., πλέκος n., πλόκανον `netting, Flechtwerk', πλοκή `netting; Ränke', πλόκος, πλόκαμος, πλοχμός (*πλοκ-σ-μος, compare den es-stem τὸ πλέκος) ` braid, plait, Locke', alb. presumably plaf `bunte, wollene cover' (*plok̂-s-ko-), plëhurë `grobe canvas, fabric'; lat. plicō, -āre `zusammenwickeln, zusammeenfalten', with i after den compounds explicāre, implicāre, applicāre; t-present plectō, -ere, -xi, -xum `flax, wattle, braid, ineinanderflechten' = ahd. flehtan, ags. fleohtan (in addition flustrian ds.), aisl. flētta `flax, wattle, braid'; aisl. flētta f. `lichen', ags. fleohta m. ` hurdle ', got. flahta ` hair lock '; ahd. flahs, ags. fleax n. `Flachs' (about ndl. vlijen `flax, wattle, braid' s. Franck van Wijk 749); aksl. pletǫ, plesti `flax, wattle, braid' (if with `westidg.' guttural from *plek-tō), ablaut. aksl. plotъ `fence';

References: WP. II 97 f., WH. II 321, 323, Trautmann 224, Lommel KZ. 53, 309 ff.

See also: zur t-extension see above S. 797 under pek̂-.

Page(s): 834-835


Root / lemma: pleuk-

Meaning: flake, feather, hair

German meaning: `Flocke, Feder, Haar, Abfall'

Material: Ahd. (expressive) floccho `lanugo', nhd. Flocke, mnd. vlocke `Woll-, snowflake ', norw. dial. flugsa, flygsa ` snowflake '; lit. pláukas `ein hair', plaukaĩ `Haare', lett. plauki `Schneeflocken; Abfall beim weaving; dust, powder; Mutterkorn', plaũkas `Abfall beim spinning, Flocken, fibers; Hülsen'; lett. plūcu, plūkt `pluck, tear, rend, pluck, schleißen', lit. plùksna, plùnksna ` feather '.

References: WP. II 97.

Page(s): 837


Root / lemma: pl(e)u-mon-, pleu-ti̯o-

Meaning: lung

German meaning: `Lunge'

Material: Old Indian klṓman- m. n. `die right Lunge' (Dissim. from p - m to k - m) = gr. πλεύμων `Lunge' (durch Anlehnung an πνέω also πνεύ̄μων); lat. pulmō, mostly Pl. `Lunge' (from *pelmōnes or *plumṓnes);

    baltoslav. *pleuti̯ā- and *plauti̯ā- n. Pl. in lit. plaũèiai and lett. plàuši, plàušas m. Pl., apr. plauti (sekund. f.) `Lunge'; aksl. plušta and *pljušta n. Pl. (aruss. pljuèa `Lunge'), serb. pljûća f. `Leber'.

    The Lunge schwimmt auf dem Wasser, also as `Schwimmer' to pleu- (pel-) `πλέω'.

References: WP. II 95 f., WH. II 386 f., Trautmann 226.

Page(s): 837-838


Root / lemma: pleus-

Meaning: to pluck; plucked hair, feathers, fell

German meaning: `ausrupfen; gerupfte Wollflocken, Federn or Haare, Vlies, Zotten'

Material: Lat. plūma `Flaumfeder, Flaum' (*plusmā); mnd. vlūs, vlūsch `Schaffell, Vlies', nnd. vlūs(e), vlūsch ` tussock Haare, Büschel Wolle', mhd. vlius (*flūsi-) `Vlies', nhd. Flaus, Flausch; mhd. vlies, nhd. Vlies;

    ags. flēos, flīes n. ds., with gramm. variation norw. flūra `zottiges hair'; aisl. flosa `splinter, offal', norw. dial. flos, flus(k), flustr ds. and ` dandruff, Schuppe auf dem Kopfe', as lett. plauskas and plaukstes ` dandruff ', lett. plūsni `in Winde flatternde birch bark ', lit.pliū́šinti `rub, wear out', plūšà `Bastfasern' (in addition рlìūšė̃ `reed') etc;

    lit. plùskos Pl. `Haarzotten, Haare', lett. pluskas `Zotten, rag', ablaut. plauskas f. Pl. `Schelfer'; lit. pláuzdinis `(Feder)bett, Deckbett', apr. (with g-Einschub) plauxdine `feather-bed'.

References: WP. II 96 f., Trautmann 227.

Page(s): 838


Root / lemma: pleu-

Meaning: to run, flow; to swim

German meaning: `rinnen (and rennen), fließen; schwimmen, schwemmen, gießen; fliegen, flattern'

Comments: probably extension from pel- `flow, schwimmen', and originally ds. as pel(eu)- `füllen voll' (`Überfluß, überfließend')

Material: Old Indian plávatē `schwimmt, hovers, flies' (= gr. πλέω, lat. perplovēre, aksl. plovǫ), pravatē `springt auf, hurries ' (hier and in av. ava nifrāvayenta `sie lassen in Fluge heimkehren', usfravā̊nte `(die Wolken) steigen auf' kann also ein idg. preu- `spring' vorliegen); Kaus. plaváyati `läßt schwimmen, überschwemmt' (= serb. ploviti, ahd. flouwen, flewen);

    lengthened grade Old Indian plāváyati `läßt schwimmen', av. usfrāvayōit `daß er wegschwemmen could' (= aksl. plavljǫ, plaviti `schwimmen lassen, schwemmen');

    plavá- `schwimmend; m. boat, Nachen' (= russ. plov); plutá- `überschwemmt' (= gr. πλυτός `gewaschen'), pluti- f. `Überfließen, Flut' (= gr. πλύσις `das Waschen'), uda-pru-t- `in Wasser schwimmend';

    arm luanam, Aor. luapi `waschen' (*plu(ʷ)a-);

    gr. πλέ(F)ω (ἔπλευσα, πλεύσομαι) `schiffe, schwimme' (Inf. ion. πλέειν, πλῶσαι `schiffen', but πλώειν, πλῶσαι `schwimmen'); ion. πλόος, att. πλοῦς m. `Schiffahrt', (=klr. plov), πλοῖον `Fahrzeug' (= aisl. fley `ship'); πλύ̄νω `wasche' (*πλῠ-ν-ι̯ω; Fut. πλῠνῶ, Aor. Pass. ἐπλύθην), πλυνός m. `Waschgrube', πλύμα n. `Spülicht', πλυτός, πλύσις (see above); πλοῦτος m. `Fulle, Reichtum'; from the lengthened grade plō[u]- besides πλώειν, πλῶσαι (see above), ἐπέπλων `beschiffte', πλωτός `schwimmend, fahrbar', hom. δακρυπλώειν `in Tränen schwimmen' (from *δακρυπλώς);

    illyr. FlN Plavis: lit. sea N. Plavõs;

    lat. perplovēre (Fest.) `durchsickern lassen, leck sein', plovēbat (Petron.), pluit, -ere `rain'; pluvius, pluor `rain';

    air. loun `Reisekost', loan, loon `adeps' (*plou̯eno-; see under mnd. flōme); air. lu- `move', Abstr. luud `Antrieb', luud `aries = Mauerbrecher'; also cét-lud `coitus'; ess-com-lu- `proficisci', ess-lu- `fortgehen, entkommen', fo-lu- `fliegen', lūamain `das Fliegen', lūath `quick, fast', lūas ` quickness '; air. lū(a)ë f. `Steuerruder, Ferse, tail', (*pluu̯i̯ā), cymr. llyw `ruler, tax, tail', acorn. loe `ruler', mir. lūam `Steuermann', cymr. llong-lywydd ds., bret. levier ds.;

    ahd. Kausat. flouwen, flewen `spülen, waschen' (= Old Indian plaváyati), aisl. flaumr `current', ahd. floum `colluvies; fat (obenschwimmend)', mnd. flōme f. `rohes Bauch- and Nierenfett', nhd. Flom, Flaum m. ds., aisl. fley (= πλοῖον, *plou̯iom) n. `ship'; aisl. flūð f. `blinde Klippe' (i.e. `überflutete'; ū : ō[ū] : ēu); plē- in mhd. vlǣjen `spülen'; plō[u]- in aisl. flōa, ags.flōwan `überfließen', got. flōdus (: πλωτός), aisl. flōð f. n., ahd. fluot `Flut', aisl. flōi m. `swamp, marsh';

    lit. Kausat. pláuju, plóviau, pláuti `waschen, spülen', Fut. pláusiu (*plōusi̯ō); plū́tis `offene place in Eise'; plevėsúoti `flutter';

    aksl. plovǫ, pluti `fließe, schiffe', plujǫ `schwimme', Kaus.-Iter. serb. plòviti `schwemmen, schwimmen', russ. plov `boat', klr. plov `natātiō', lengthened grade aksl. plaviti `schwimmen lassen', -sę `navigare', plavati `schwimmen'; serb. plȕta f., plȕto n. `cork'; *plū- in Inf. russ. plytь, serb. plȉti;

    toch. А В plu- `fliegen, schweben', В plewe `ship'.

    extensions:

    pleu-d-: air. im-lūadi `exagitat', imlūad `agitatio', for-lūadi `schwenkt', lūaid- `move, erwähnen, äußern'; in addition mir. loscann `frog' (`Springer'); aisl. fljōta, ags. flēotan, as.fliotan, ahd. fliozan `flow'; ags. flotian `schwimmen', flota `ship', floterian `to flutter', änhd. flutteren `volitāre'; fragwürdig is die apposition from got. flauts `prahlerisch', flautjan `sich großmachen', ahd. flōzzan `superbire'; lit. pláudžiu pláusti `waschen, clean', lett.plaûst ds., lit. plústu, plū́dau, plū́sti `stream, fluten, überfließen', pludė̃ `Schwimmholz', plūdìmas `das Strömen, Überfließen', lett. pluduôt `obenauf schwimmen', pludi, pludińi `Schwimmhölzer', plûdi Pl. `Überschwemmung, Flut', plūdît `ergießen, stream; bewässern'; lit. plúostas `Fähre' (*plōud-tā), pláustas ds. (*ploud-tā).

    pleu-k-: schwed. norw. fly `moor, fen, puddle, slop' (*fluhja-); aisl. fljūga, ags. flēogan, ahd. fliogan `fliegen' (die Beseitigung of gramm. Wechsels probably durch Differenzierung against fliehen = got. Þliuhan); in addition ags. fleoge, aisl. fluga, ahd. flioga `fly'; dissimil. from germ. *flug-la- (compare ags. flugol `fugax') probably die words for `bird': aisl. fugl, fogl, got. fugls, m., ags. fugol, as. fugal, ahd. fogal m.; lit. plaũkti `schwimmen'; plùnksna f. ` feather ', older plū́ksna.

References: WP. II 94 f., WH. II 326 f., Trautmann 223 f.

Page(s): 835-837


Root / lemma: plēi-, plǝi-, plī-

Meaning: naked, bare, bald

German meaning: `kahl, bloß'

Material: Norw. dial. flein `naked, bald, bleak, naked', Subst. `kahler Fleck', fleina `entblößt, baldheaded become' and `die Zähne show, grinsen'; lit. plýnas `eben, bare, baldheaded ', lit. plýnė, pleĩnė `kahleEbene'; plìkas ` baldheaded ', plìkė `Kahlkopf, nackte Ebene', pleĩkė `Glatze', plinkù, plìkti ` baldheaded become', lett. pliks, pleiks `entblößt, naked, bald, bleak'; r.-ksl. plěšь `Kahlheit', plěšivь `naked, bald, bleak', èech. pleš f. `Glatze' etc, compare also norw. flisa `grinsen, lachen, kichern', fleis `face' (eig. `grinsendes face, Grimasse'), flire `kichern, lachen', aisl. flim ` derision ';

    here also the oberital. (raet.) PN Plinius.

References: WP. II 93, Trautmann 226 f.; Vasmer 2, 371 f.;

See also: compare under under plēk̂- etc

Page(s): 834


Root / lemma: plēk̂-, plǝk̂- and plēik̂-, plīk̂-

Meaning: to tear, peel off

German meaning: `reißen, abreißen (abschälen)'

Material: 1. Aisl. flā (*flahan), ags. flēan `die Haut abziehen', aisl. fletta (*flahatjan) `(den bag, die dress) abziehen', norw. flaga `abgeschält become (from the bark)', aisl. flagna `sich abschälen'; nasalized aisl. flengja `throw', norw. ds., `losreißen'; with germ. -k- (= idg. g), aisl. flakna =flagna (skip-flak `Schiffswrack'), flaka `aufklaffen, sich unpick, gähnen';

    lit. plė́š-iu, -ti ` rend ' (trans.), nuplė́šti `abreißen (e.g. dress), die Haut abschinden', plėšzinỹs `fresh aufgerissener farmland'; lett. pluôsît Iter. ` rend, pull';

    perhaps alb. plas `berste, break', plasë `Ritze = col, gap, Sprung; Schießscharte', pëlsás, Aor. plasa `berste, spring, gehe zugrunde'.

    2. ēi-, ī-forms: lit. pléišu, -ėti ` rend, platzen (from the Haut)', plaiš-inti `break, crack make', plýš-ti ` rend, Intr.', plyšỹs, plyšė̃ `crack, col, gap'; lett. Intrans. plîst ` rend ', plaîsa, plaîsums `crack', plaisât `Risse bekommen'; diese alien i-forms gestatten also die Heranziehung from norw. dial. flīk(e) `gähnende wound' (eig. `crack, col, gap'), aisl. flīk, Pl.flīkr and flīkar f. `scrap, shred, rag', ags. (kent.) flǣc (*flaiki) `Fleisch' (k probably from kk), flicce `Speckseite', aisl. flikki ds., mnd. vlicke ds., `Flicke, abgetrenntes Stück'; ahd.flëc, flëccko, mhd. vlec, vlecke (urgerm. *flikka) `Stück Zeug, Stück Haut, Stück Land, place, andersfarbige place, macula'; aisl. flekkr `Fleck, Stück Land' (mnd. vlacke `Fleck' is neuerAblaut);

    because of ags. flǣc `Fleisch' is also Verwandtschaft from ags. flǣsc, as. flēsk, ahd. fleisk `Fleisch', aisl. flesc (*fleisk) `bacon, ham' to consider, yet barely under einer basic form *flaik-sk-, da mnd. mndl. vlēs, vlees `Fleisch', aisl. flis `abgeschnittenes Stück, splinter', schwed. flīs, flīsa ds., norw. mdartl. flīs ds., kjøt-flis `dünnes Stück Fleisch' eine verwandte, germ. root form auf -s instead of guttural show, die in schwed. flister `Schinnen' and lit. pléiskanos `Schinnen in Haar', lett. pliska `zerlumpter person' wiederkehrt.

References: WP. II 98 f.,

See also: derived from plē-, plǝ-, above S. 834.

Page(s): 835


Root / lemma: plē-, plǝ-

Meaning: to split, cut off

German meaning: `abspalten, abreißen'

Comments: with -s- extended

Material: Aisl. flasa f. `dünne Scheibe, splinter', fles f. `flat Klippe', isl., aschwed. flas ` dandruff, Schuppe', norw. flasa `absplittern, abspalten', isl. flaska `gespalten become'; lit. plãskanos Pl. `Schinnen in Haar'.

References: WP. II 93;

See also: compare under plēk̂- etc

Page(s): 834


Root / lemma: plǝi-, plǝu-

Meaning: to expand; to boast

German meaning: `breit schlagen, breit machen'

Material: 1. plǝi-t- (compare pleik- under 1. plāk- `breit') in gr. πλαισίον n. `längliches Viereck', lit. plaitýtis `sich breit machen, brag, boast'; with anlaut. s-: lit. splintù, splitaũ, splìsti `breit become'.

    2. plǝu-d-, plǝu-t- in lat. plaudō, -ere, -sī, -sum `klatsche, hitt, klatsche Beifall', plausus, -ūs `Beifall' (compare apl&ūda `chaff, Kleie' from *ab-plaudā `die abgeschlagene') ; lat. plautus `breit, platt, plattfüßig', PN Plautus, prän.-lat. Plautios, päl. Plauties, with umbr. ō:Plōtus; umbr. Imper. pre-plotatu `prosternito'; lett. plaũksta `flat hand' (different Mühlenbach-Endzelin III 325).

References: WP. II 100, WH. II 319, 320;

See also: extensions the root pelǝ- `flat, eben', above S. 805.

Page(s): 838


Root / lemma: plouto-, pluto-

Meaning: a kind of wooden stockade

German meaning: `from Brettern or Stangen Gefertiges'

Material: Lat. pluteus, -um `Schirmdach, Wandbrett, Zwischenwand', changing through ablaut with lit. plaũtas `Steg am beehive', lett. plāuts `Wandbrett', plautaĩ `die Bänke an the wall the Badestube' and aisl. fleyðr f. `Dachsparren', norw. expressive flauta f. `crossbar, crossbeam an einem sled '.

References: WP. II 90.

Page(s): 838


Root / lemma: pneu-

Meaning: to breathe

German meaning: and andere with pn- anlautende Sippen for `keuchen, atmen'; schallmalend

Material: Gr. πνέω (πνεῦσαι) `blow, pant, gasp, breathe, smell', πνεῦμα `das Wehen, breath, breeze, breath etc', πνοή `das Wehen, snort'; in addition perhaps also ποιπνύ̄ω `sich rühren, rege sein', trans. `sich eifrig wherewith beschäftigen', Perf. πεπνῦσθαι `geistig rege, sensible, wise sein', πνυτός ἔμφρων, σώφρων Hes., ἀμπνῦσθαι `again zum Bewußtsein kommen', if `sich rühren, rege, esp. geistig rege' from `beim Laufe keuchen' and `breathe = agile, lively sein' has evolved;

    aisl. fnȳsa `pant, sniff, snort', ags. fnēosan `sneeze' (fnora `das Niesen'), mhd. pfnūsen `pant, sniff, snort, sneeze' (pf- schallverstärkend for f), pfnust m. `unterdrücktes Lachen', norw. fnysa `kichern'; besides germ. *fnēs-, *fnōs-, *fnas-: ags. fnesan `anhelare', fnǣst m. `breath, breath, breeze', fnǣsettan `schnarchen, pant, sniff, snort', mhd. pfnāsen `pant, sniff, snort', pfnāst m. `das snort', ahd. fnāsteōn `anhelare'; aisl. fnø̄sa `pant, sniff, snort'; aisl. fnā̆sa `pant, sniff, snort'; ahd. fnaskazzen, fneskezzen, mhd. phneschen `pant, sniff, snort, pant, gasp';

    germ. fnē̆h-: ahd. fnehan, mhd. pfnehen `breathe, pant, sniff, snort, pant, gasp', ahd. fnāhtente `schnaubend' (mhd. pfnuht m. `snort' braucht nicht die zero grade from idg. pneu- widerzuspiegeln).

References: WP. II 85, Wissmann Nom. Postverb. 18 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 696.

Page(s): 838-839


Root / lemma: pn̥ksti-

Meaning: fist

German meaning: `Faust'?

Material: Ahd. fūst, ags. fȳst = abg. pęstь (*pìnstь) `fist'.

Note: Obviously Root / lemma: pn̥ksti- `fist' derived from penkʷe `five (fingers)'

References: WP. II 84, Trautmann 218 f.;

See also: to germ. faŋχan (pā̆k̂- and pā̆ĝ-, S. 788) or to penkʷe `fünf'.

Page(s): 839


Root / lemma: polo- : pōlo-

Meaning: swollen, fat, big

German meaning: `geschwollen, dick, groß'

Material: Lat. polleō, -ēre `bin strong, vermöge', Denomin. eines *pollos from *pol-no-; in addition pollex, -icis m. `Daumen, big, giant toe'; proto slav.. palъ in russ. bez-palъij `fingerlos'; aruss.-ksl. palъcъ `Daumen' (*poliko-), etc ; perhaps in addition as `with dem Daumen betasten' npers. pālidan `suchen, spüren', bulg. pálam `search, seek', ahd. fuolen, nhd. fühlen, ags. fǣlan, engl. feel, (*fōljan), aisl. felma `tap, tasten', ablaut. falma ds.

References: WP. II 7, 102, WH II 332 f., Vasmer 2, 305.

Page(s): 840-841


Root / lemma: pork̂o-s

Meaning: pig

German meaning: `Schwein' ('neugeborenes Tier, Ferkel')

Material: Sakisch pāsa (*parsa), kurd. purs, borrows finn. porsas, mordw. puŕts `swine';

    lat. porcus `das zahme swine', umbr. porca, purca `porcās'; mir. orc m. `Ferkel, young animal', abrit. Orcades (with gr. ending) = mir. Innsi Orc `Orkney-islands';

    ahd. far(a)h n., ags. fearh m. n. `swine', (dän. fare `Ferkel throw'); lit. par̃šas `a castrated boar', apr. prastian `Ferkel' (*parsistian); abg. prasę, -ęte `swine, Ferkel' (deminut. nt-Suff.); to lat. porcīnus `vom swine' compare lit. paršienà `Ferkelfleisch', to lat. porculus `Schweinchen' das lit. paršẽlis `Ferkel', ahd. farheli, mhd.varchelīn, nhd. Ferkel.

References: WP. II 78, WH. II 341, Trautmann 207, Benveniste BSL. 45, 74 ff.; after Specht Idg. Dekl. 34 to perk̂- `aufreißen' (see 821).

Page(s): 841


Root / lemma: pos

Meaning: by, about, around, beside

German meaning: `unmittelbar bei, hinter, after'

Comments: probably *p + os, Gen.-Abl. to *(e)p-, above S. 53 f.

Material: Gr. in ark.-kypr. and auf gr. Inschriften Phrygiens πός, vor vowel also πο-, geltungsgleich with πρός (see *per `out - about', Nr. 8) and dor. ποτί; lit. pàs preposition `an, by'; probably also aksl. po in the meaning `hinter, after'; compare das erhaltene s- in aksl. poz-dъ Adj. `late', poz-dě Adv. `late', pozderije (paz-derije) `καλάμη, στυπεῖον'. To lit. pàs also pãstaras `the letzte, hinterste'.

   derivatives: 1. with -ti probably arm. ǝst `after', Adverbal and preposition `after = secundum, gemäß'; in addition stor `the untere part'?; lat. post, alat. poste `after, hinter', örtlich and zeitlich, Adverbal and preposition m. Akk., osk. púst, post, umbr. post, pus `post' örtlich and zeitlich, preposition m. Abl., therefrom lat. posterus, osk. pústreí `in postero', umbr. postra, lat. postumus, osk. pustma[s] `postremae'; umbr. postne, lat. pōne from *posti-ne; osk. pústin, umbr. pustin (from *posti en) `je after' preposition m. Akk.; umbr. pust-naiaf `posticas', purnaes `posticis'; lat. postīcus `hinten befindlich'.

    2. -ko- Old Indian paścā́ (Instr.) Adv. `hinten, westlich, later' = av. pašca preposition `hinter, after', örtlich and zeitlich, Old Indian paścā́t (Abl.) preposition `hinter, after, westlich', av. paskāt̃ Adv. `vonhinten her, hinterdrein' spacial and zeitlich; lit. paskuĩ, pãskui (Dat.) Adv. `hinterher, nachher', preposition `after'.

    3. In ending still strittig is ap. pasā `after', preposition örtlich and zeitlich; alb. pas, geg. mbas preposition `hinter, after' (idg. *pos + Demonstr. si).

References: WP. II 78 f., WH. II 347 ff., Trautmann 207, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 2, 508.

Page(s): 841-842


Root / lemma: poti-s

Meaning: owner, host, master, husband

German meaning: `Hausherr, Herr; Gatte'

Material: Old Indian páti-, av. paiti- `master, mister, lord, master, Gemahl'; Old Indian pátnī `mistress, Gattin', av. paϑnī- `mistress'; Old Indian pátyatē `herrscht, is teilhaftig' (: lat. potior);

    av. x ̌aē-pati- `er selbst';

    gr. πόσις `Gatte', πότνια `mistress (of Hauses), Gattin'; δέσ-ποινα `mistress of Hauses' (*δεσ-πονι̯α, from *δεσ-ποτνι̯α), δεσ-πότης, -ου `master, mister of Hauses' (see above S. 198); alb. pata `hatte', pashë `gehabt' (*pot-to-) (to einem present as lat. potior, Old Indian pátyatē);

    lat. potis (potior, potissimus) `vermögend, mighty', possum, alat. also potis sum `kann', potui, potens from einem ē-denominative as osk. pútíad `possit', pútíans `possint', lat. potestās `power', potior, -īrī (potĭtur and potītur) `sich bemächtigen'; com-pos `teilhaftig' (*`Mitherr'), hospes, -itis `Gastfreund', pael. hospus (*ghosti-pots `Gastherr'); ein unflektiertes *poti `selbst' steckt in utpote `as natürlich, da nämlich, nämlich', eig. *ut *pote (est) `as es möglich is = natürlich', further with syncope in mihī-, meō-, suāpte etc;

    got. brūÞ-faÞs `Bräutigam', hunda-faÞs `Befehlshaber about 100 Mann'; engl. fad `strong, valiant, big, large';

    lit. pàts `husband' and `selbst' (old patis), lett. pats ` householder ' and `selbst', lit.viẽšpats `master, mister' (old viešpatìs), apr. pattiniskun Akk. f. ` matrimony '; f. alit. viešpatni; *patnī under influence of *pati- transfigured to *patī in apr. waispattin Akk. `wife, woman', lit. patì `wife', lett. pati `Wirtin'; indekl. particle lit. pàt, lett. pat `selbst, sogar, straight'; about aksl. gospodь `master, mister', see above S. 453;

    hitt. -pat `eben(so), also, rather'; toch. A pats `husband'.

References: WP. II 77 f., WH. I 660 f., II 350 f., 379 f., Trautmann 208, Benveniste Origines 1, 63 f., Pedersen Hitt. 77 f., Endzelin Lett. Gr. 396 f.

Page(s): 842


Root / lemma: po-ti

Meaning: against

German meaning: `compared with, entgegen, gegen'

Comments: durch das Adv.-forms -ti (compare *proti- : *pro above S. 815 f.) from *po (see under *apo `ab') extended

Material: Av. paiti, ap. patiy preverb. and preposition `against, entgegen, to, auf, by'; `an; for, um'; `from - from'; `in - toward, in'; hom., böot.., lak. etc ποτί `πρός' preverb. and preposition `against - toward, against, compared with; an, to', `in - toward, from-'.

References: WP. II 77, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 2, 508 f.

Page(s): 842


Root / lemma: pougo- or pougho-

Meaning: clear, sound

German meaning: `integer, lauter'

Comments: only kelt. and slav.

Material: Air. ōg `jungfräulich', ōge `Jungfräulichkeit'; èech. pouhý `lauter, bare, simple, just'.

References: WP. II 77.

Page(s): 843


Root / lemma: pō(i)-1 : (pǝi-?:) pī-

Meaning: to graze

German meaning: `Vieh weiden, hüten'; out of it `schützen, also durch Bedecken'

Material: Old Indian pāti, av. pāiti `hütet, bewacht, schützt', Old Indian gō-pā́- m. `herdsman, shepherd', av. rāna-pā `Beinschutz, -schiene', Old Indian pāyú- `Hüter' (compare πῶυ), pālá- m. `Wachter, herdsman, shepherd', -pāvan `schützend', ар. xšaϑra-pāvan `Landvogt, Satrap'; Old Indian nŕ̥-pī-ti- f. `Mannerschutz'; nr̥-p-a- m. `Männerschützer =king'; pā́tra- n. ` container ' (= got. fōdr);

    gr. πῶυ `herd' (n. to Old Indian pāyú-), ποιμήν `herdsman, shepherd' (: lit. piemuõ), ποίμην `herd', ποιμαίνω `treibe auf die Weide, hüte; ziehe auf; πῶμα (pō-mn̥) `cover';

    got. fōdr n. (= Old Indian pā́tra-, yet stimmt in addition in Akzent only ags. fōðor) `θήκη, vagina', ags. fōðor, fōdor `Futteral, vagina'; spätaisl. fōðr n. `Futter (of Kleides)' from mnd. vōder ds.; ahd. (fedar)fōtar `canna', spätahd. fūoter `theca', nhd. Futter (of Kleides), Futteral;

    lit. piemuõ `herdsman, shepherd', Akk. píemenį (*pōimen-).

References: WP. II 72, Trautmann 204, 207 f.

Page(s): 839


Root / lemma: pō(i)-2 : pī- and (from pō- from) po-

Meaning: to drink

German meaning: `trinken'

Grammatical information: Aoristwurzel, wherefore secondary present pi-pō-mi, pi-bō-mi, themat. pi-bō

Material: Old Indian pā́ti `trinkt', Aor. ápāt, pāy-áyati, páyatē `tränkt' (: aksl. pojǫ, pojiti), pānam n. `Trunk' (: gr. εὔπωνος `pleasant to drink' Hes., mir. ān f. `vessel'), Inf. pātavē `to drink' (= apr. poūtwei ds.), pā́tar-, pātár- m. `Trinker' (= lat. pōtor ds.), -pā́yia-, -pāyya- `to tränken, Trunk' (= apr. poūis m. `das Trinken'), pātra- n. `Trinkgefäß' (*pō-tlo-m = lat. pōculum `Becher'); participle Pass. ablaut. pītá- `getrunken (habend)', pītí- f. `das Trinken, Trunk', av. vispo-pitay- `alltränkend'; Old Indian Inf. pātum, pātavē, Gerund. pītvā- (: lat. pōtus m. `Trank'); redupl. athematic present 3. Pl. pi-p-atē, participle pí-p-āna-, Aor. á-pipī-ta-; thematic píbati `trinkt' (= air. ibid);

    arm. ǝmpem `trinke' (formation unclear);

    gr. πί̄νω, lesb. πώνω (vom Nominalst. *pō-no-, compare above εὔπωνως) `trinke', Fut. (Konj.) πίομαι, Aor. ἔπιον, Imper. πῖθι, Perf. πέπωκα, Med. πέπομαι `trinke', πῶμα, πόμα n. `Trinken, Trank', πότος m., πόσις, -ιος and -εως f. ds., ποτήρ m., ποτήριον n. `Trinkbecher', πῖνον n. `Gerstentrank', πιπί̄σκω (Fut. πί̄σω) `give to drink';

    alb. pī `trinke' etc;

    lat. bibō, -ere `trinke' (assimil. from *pibō; falisk. pipăfo `I werde drink'; lat. pōtō, -āre `trinke strong', pōtus `betrunken, getrunken' (= lit. puotà f. `Zechgelage'), pōtus, -ūs m. `Trank' (= Old Indian <pātum Inf.), pōtiō f. `Trinken, Trank' (: gr. ἄμ-πωτις f. `Ebbe', apr. poūt `drink' from *pōti-), pōculum `Becher' (*pō-tlo-m), pōtor m. `Trinker' (= Old Indian pā́tar-); umbr. puni, poni `milk' (: Old Indian pānam `Getränk'); air. ibid (*pibeti) `trinkt', Verbalnom. Dat. Sg.oul (disyllabic) `Trinken' (*poi̯ǝ-lo-); acymr. iben `bibimus', corn. evaf `bibo', mbret. euaff ds.; mir. ān f. `Trinkgefäß' (: Old Indian pānam `Trunk');

    baltoslav. *pōi̯ō and *pii̯ō `trinke' in apr. poieiti `trinkt', poūis m. `das Trinken', aksl. pijǫ, piti `trinke'; pirъ m. `Bankett', pivo n. `Getränk', èech. etc `beer'; Kaus. aksl. pojǫ, pojiti `tränke'; baltoslav. *pōta- and *pīta- `getrunken' in lit. puotà f. `Trinkgelage' and aksl. pitijь `trinkbar'; baltoslav. *pōti uud *pīti f. `das Trinken' in apr. Inf. poūt (*pōti-) and slov. pît f. `Getränk' (Infin. *piti); baltoslav. *pōtu- m. `das Trinken' in apr. Inf. puton, pouton and poutwei `drink', ablaut. passive russ.-ksl. pitъ.

References: WP. II 71 f., WH. I 103 f., Trautmann 228 f.

Page(s): 839-840


Root / lemma: pōu- : pǝu- : pū̆-

Meaning: small, little; young (of animals)

German meaning: `klein, gering, wenig', vielfach for `Junges, Tierjunges, kleines Tier'

Material: 1. With -o-suffix; got. fawai Pl. `wenige', aisl. fār `wenig, wortkarg', fā-tøkr `arm' (as lat. pauper), ahd. fao, `wenig', Dat. Pl. fouuem, as. , ags. fēa, Pl. fēawe, engl. few `wenige'.

    2. With formants -ko-: lat. paucus `wenig', pauper `arm' (*pauco-paros or pau-paros? `wenig erwerbend, wenig sich constituting, originating '); ahd. fōh `wenig';

maybe alb. (*pauc-) pak ` little'.

    With suffix -lo-: lat. paul(l)us `small, wenig' (*pauks-lo-), pauxillus `ganz wenig' (*pauk-s-lo-lo-).

    3. With formants -ro-: gr. παῦρος `small, gering', lat. with rearrangement parvus `small', parum (*parvom) `to wenig'.

    4. `Junges, Tierjunges':

    gr. παῦς (att. Vasen), Gen. παFός (kypr., in addition ein neuer Nom. πας), παῖς, Gen. παιδός m. f., hom. πάις, παFιδ- `kid, child'; lat. puer `kid, child, knave, boy, girl' (*puu̯ero-), puella `girl';

    got. fula, aisl. foli m., fyl n. (*fulja-), under fylja f., ags. fola, ahd. folo, fulī(n) `Füllen, foals'; besides *pō[u]los in arm. ul `goat', am-ul `unfruchtbar' (*n̥-pōlo-), yɫi f. `pregnant'(*i-pōlniyā); gr. πῶλος `foals', also `young man, young girl', πωλίον `small foals, Junges', alb. pelë, pēlë `mare' (Fem. to *pōlos); perhaps med. Arbu-pales, if es `weiße foals besitzend' stands for.

    5. With t-formant: putrá- m., av. ар. puϑ-ra- m. (latter from pūtlo- = osk. puklo-) `son, kid, child';

maybe alb. putra `paw (of a young animal', puta `sole'

 gr. names as Πώ-ταλος; lat. putus, putillus `knave, boy', next to which *pūt-so- in pūs(s)us, -a `knave, boy, girl', but pŭsillus `very small' is Demin. from pullus (*putslo-lo-s); osk. puklo- `kid, child' (= Old Indian putrá-), pälign. puclois Dat. Pl. `pueris', mars. pucles; lat. pullus ` young, Tierjunges' (*put-s-lo-);

maybe alb. (*putillus) pulisht `donkey's colt'

    baltoslav. *putā `bird' in russ.-ksl. pъta `bird', pъtištь `small bird' (`bird' eigentl. `young bird'), lit. putýtis `young animal, young bird' (Zärtlichkeitsausdruck), balt. *put-n-a- in lett. putns `bird'; with other, demin. Formansverbindung lit. paũ-kštis `bird'.

maybe alb. pata `goose' : russ.-ksl. pъta `bird'

References: WP. II 75 f., WH. II 259, 265 f., 382 f., 385 f., 394, Trautmann 233.

Page(s): 842-843


Root / lemma: prāi-, prǝi-, prī- (pri-)

Meaning: to like, feel well-disposed, friendly

German meaning: `gern haben, schonen, friedlich-frohe Gesinnung'

Material: Old Indian prīṇā́ti `erfreut', Med. `is vergnügt about etwas', prīyatē ds., `liebt', prītá- `vergnügt, befriedigt; geliebt', prītí- f. `pleasure, joy, Befriedigung', priyāyátē `behandelt liebevoll, befreundet sich' (: got. frijōn, aksl. prija-jǫ), priyá- `lieb, erwünscht, beliebt', m. ` lover, Gatte', f. `Geliebte, Gattin' (= av. frya-, aisl. Frigg etc, and got. freis, c. rhydd `free'), priyatvá-m `das Liebsein or -haben' (: got. frijaÞwa f. `love'), priyátā ds. (= ags. frēod `love'); with*prǝi- : práyaḥ n. `pleasure, enjoyment', prēmán- m. n. `love, Gunst', prētár- `Wohltäter, Liebhaber, Pfleger', Superl. práïṣṭha- (ved.), prḗṣṭha- `liebst, teuerst', whereupon Kompar. prḗyas- `lieber' for older *prāyas-; av. frāy- `befriedigen', e.g. frīnāmahi participle frita-, frīna-, friϑa- `blithe, glad; befriedigt; geliebt', friti- f. `prayer', frya- `lieb, wert'; perhaps the hispan. (ven.-illyr. ?) VN Praesta-marci (: ags. frīd-hengest);

 

Maybe alb. geg. frynj 'impregnate, make love, swell, blow, wind, exhale', frymë 'breath, air blow'.

Note:

alb. geg. prende, tosk. Premte [*prēmán- dies] 'Friday' was created on the same basis as lat. L Veneris dies day of the planet Venus (whence Fr. vendredi), based on Gk Aphrodites hemera day of Aphrodite, germ. Freitag 'day of Freya = goddess of love' similar to gr. παρασκευή 'Friday' from gr. πρᾱΰς ` soft, mild '

    gr. πρᾱΰς `gentle, mild' from *πρᾱι̯υ- with jüngerer o-inflection πρᾳος, beweist idg. āi; whereas. belongs air. rīar f. `volition, Wunsch' to erei-, S. 330;

    cymr. rhydd `free' = got. freis (akk. frijana), ahd. as. frī, ags. frēo, frī `free, los, free from', aisl. in frjāls from *frīhals (die meaning `free' originally `to den Lieben gehörig'); aisl. Frigg, ahd. Frija `Gattin Wotans', ags. frēo f., as. frī n. `Weib from edler Abkunft' (`die liebe'); got. frijōn `lieben', aisl. frjā ds., ags. frīogan `lieben, befreien', mdn. vrīen, as. friohan `freien, werben', participle got. frijōnds `friend', aisl. frǣndi, Pl. frǣndr `friend, kinsman, relative', ags. frīond, as. friund `friend, lover, kinsman, relative', ahd. friunt `friend, lover '; aisl. frīðr `beautiful', ags. frīd-hengest `stattliches horse'; from *frīða- in the meaning `geschont' derives got. freidjan `spare, look after', ahd. vrīten `hegen' (frīthof `eingefriedigter courtyard ', nhd. Freithof and volksetymologisch Friedhof); with aisl. friðill ` lover, Buhle', f. friðla, frilla, ahd. fridel, f. fridila `Geliebte(r)', next to which from participle *frijōða- from: as. friuthil, ahd. friudil ds.; ahd. fridu m. `peace, protection, certainty, Einfriedigung', as. frithu m. `peace', ags. frioðu m. `peace, protection, certainty ', aisl. friðr m. `love, peace', got. ga-friÞōn `spare, look after', aisl. friða `Frieden make, versöhnen', ags. friðian `schützen', ahd. gifridōn `beschützen';

    aksl. prějǫ ` be favorable to, take care of ', prija-jǫ, -ti ds., prijatel<ь `friend, lover '; probably also lett. priêks `pleasure, joy'.

maybe alb. prek `touch, make love' : lett. priêks `pleasure, joy', alb. geg. me pritë `to host, protect, expect, wait.

References: WP. II 86 f., Trautmann 231.

Page(s): 844


Root / lemma: prā-

Meaning: to bend

German meaning: `biegen'

Comments: ?; only lat. and kelt.

Material: Lat. prāvus `verkehrt; slant, skew; evil, bad'; in addition prātum `meadow' (as `Einbiegung of Bodens', compare e.g. lit. lankà `Einsenkung, meadow': leñkti `bend') and (as `Aufbiegung, Wölbung, hill'); mir. rāth, rāith m. f. `Erdwall, fortress', mcymr. bed-rawt, ncymr. bedd-rod m. `burial mound, grave', bret. bez-ret f. `Begrabnisplatz, Friedhof', gall. rātin Akk. Sg. `castle(hügel)', PN Argento-rāte.

References: WP. II 86, WH. II 358 f.

Page(s): 843-844


Root / lemma: preg-

Meaning: willing, covetous, active

German meaning: `gierig, heftig'

Material: Got. (faihu-)friks `(geld-)gierig', aisl. frekr `gierig, strong, hard, agile, lively', ags. frecc `gierig, audacious' (*frakja-), ahd. freh `gierig', nhd. frech dial. also `agile, lively, fresh'; ags.fræc `begierig, audacious', mnd. vrak, norw. schwed. dial. frak, dän. frag `quick, fast, gamy'; norw.frǣc ds. (*frākja-); aisl. frø̄kn, frø̄kinn `gamy', ags. frēcne `audacious, wild', as. frōkni `wild, cheeky, foolhardy ', ahd. Frōhn, Fruochan- in PN; frōhni `iactura'; poln. pragnąć `gierig long, want', èech. prahnouti `begehren' etc; here aisl. frakkr `gamy' and the VN Franken.

References: WP. II 88;

See also: belongs to gr. σπαργάω `bin horny, lustful', see under sp(h)er(e)g-.

Page(s): 845


Root / lemma: prep-

Meaning: to come in sight

German meaning: `in die Augen fallen; Erscheinung, Gestalt'

Material: Arm. erevim `werde visible, erscheine', erevak `shape, Bild, mark, token, sign', eres (*prep-s-), mostly Pl. eresk` `face, Miene, sight, Vorderseite', eresem `zeige mich, erscheine'; also orovain `belly' etc (*prop-n̥-i̯o-)?

    gr. πρέπω `falle in die Augen, erscheine, steche hervor, zeichne mich from', πρέπει `es ziemt sich', ἀρι-, δια-, ἐκ-, εὐ-, μετα-πρεπής `hervorstechend, sich auszeichnend'; θεο-πρόπος `Seher' (`the sich from god from vernehmlich Machende'); perhaps πpαπίς `Zwerchfell'; different above S. 620.

    air. richt `form, shape', cymr. rhith `species' (*pr̥p-tu-);

    ahd. furben `clean, putzen, fegen' (`in die Augen fallend machen, ein Ansehen give'), mhd. vürbe ` cleaning, purification; Sternschnuppe', and. wel gifurvid `casta'.

References: WP. II 89.

Page(s): 845


Root / lemma: pret-, prō̆t-

Meaning: to understand

German meaning: `verstehen'

Material: Mir. rāthaigid `bemerkt'; got. fraÞi n. `sense, mind, Verstand', fraÞjan, frōÞ `verstehen', frōÞs `smart, sensible, wise', aisl. frōðr, as. ags. frōd, ahd. fruot ds., mhd. vruotec, vrüetec `quick, fast entschlossen, alert, awake, smart, valiant', nhd. schweiz. fruetig `blithe, glad, fresh, valiant, quick, fast', also ahd.frad `strenuus efficax', fradah-līh `procax'; perhaps ahd. ant-frist `interpretatio' (*pret-sti-); lit. prantù, pràsti `gewohnt become', su-pràsti `verstehen', prõtas `Verstand', lett.prùotu, prast `verstehen, begreifen, merken', pràts `Verstand, sense, mind, volition, opinion, Gemüt', apr.prātin Akk. `Rat', iss-prestun `verstehen', is-presnan Akk. `reason', issprettīngi Adv. `nämlich';

    toch. A pratim, В pratiṃ `Entschluß'.

References: WP. II 86, WH. I 711, Trautmann 230.

Page(s): 845


Root / lemma: preus-

Meaning: to fry; to burn

German meaning: `frieren' and `brennen'

Material: A. Old Indian pruṣvā́ f. `drip, hoarfrost, gefrorenes water'; lat. pruīna ` hoarfrost, frost' (*prusu̯īnā); got. frius `frost, coldness', aisl. frør, frer n. `Frostwetter', aisl. frjōsa, ags. frēosan, ahd. friosan `frieren', ahd. frōren `gefrieren make', ahd. as. frost (*frus-taz); ags. forst m. aisl. frost n. `frost';

    B. Old Indian plṓṣati `versengt, burns', pluṣṭa- `versengt, verbrannt'; alb. prūsh `burning coals, blaze, glow'; lat. prūna `glowing coals' (*prusnā), prūrīre `jucken'.

References: WP. II 88, WH. II 378 f.

Page(s): 846


Root / lemma: preu-

Meaning: to jump

German meaning: `springen, hüpfen'

Material: Old Indian právatē `springt auf, hüpft, hurries ', pravá- `flatternd, schwebend, fliegend', upa-prú-t `heranschwebend, heranwallend' (Zusammenschluß with den Abkömmlingen from *pleu- `rinnen', see there), plava- m. `frog', eig. `Springer', maṇḍūka-pluti- m. `Froschsprung = Überspringung mehrerer Sutra', plava-ga-, plavą-gama- m. `frog, ape' (d. h. `in Sprunge gehend'); aisl. frār `quick, fast, flink', urnord. Frawa- (eig. `springend' = Old Indian pravá-), as. frā `blithe, glad', ahd. frao, frō, frawēr `strenuus, alacer (Gl.); blithe, glad', whereof ahd. frouwen, frewen `sich freuen', frewī, frewida `pleasure, joy'; russ. prytь f. `schneller run, flow', prýtkij `hurtig, hasty'.

Maybe rum. (*breuska) broascã `toad, frog' : alb. (*breustka) bretkosa `toad, frog'; gr βάτραχος `frog'; also rum. broascã-þestoasã `tortoise, water animal ' : alb. (*breuska ) breshkë `turtle, tortoise '.

   guttural extension in aisl. frauki, ags. frogga `frog'; from *prug-skō `hüpfe' germ. *fruska- in aisl. froskr, ags. frosc, forsc, nhd. Frosch; russ. prýgnutь `einen Sprung, einen Satz make', prýgatь `hüpfen, spring', pryg `Sprung, Satz'.

also alb. pragu (*preug) `(high) threshold', bregu (*breug) `shore, hill'

References: WP. II 87 f.

Page(s): 845-846


Root / lemma: prīs-

Meaning: to granulate

German meaning: `zerkleinern'??

Comments: only gr. and alban.

Material: Gr. πρί̄ω (ἐπρίσθην, πριστός) `durchsäge, knirsche with den Zähnen', πρί̄ων, -ονος `Säge', πρῖσμα `das Gesägte, Sägespäne; dreiseitige column ';

    alb. prish `verderbe, rupture, destroy, smash'.

References: WP. II 89.

Page(s): 846


Root / lemma: prōk̂to- : prǝk̂to-

Meaning: buttocks

German meaning: `Steiß'?

Comments: only gr. and armen.

Material: Arm. erastank` Pl. `ἕδραι' (from *erast = prǝk̂to-) kann die Redukt.-stem besides gr. πρωκτός `rump, After' sein.

References: WP. II 89, Meillet Esquisse2 142.

Page(s): 846


Root / lemma: prō̆-

See also: s. per-2 S. 813 f.

Page(s): 846


Root / lemma: pr̥so- (?)

Meaning: onion

German meaning: `Lauch'

Comments: is mediterranes loanword

Material: Gr. πράσον `Lauch': lat. porrum, porrus `Lauch'.

References: WP. II 84, WH. II 343, Szemerényi Gl. 33, 261 f.

Page(s): 846


Root / lemma: pster-, pstereu-

Meaning: to sneeze

German meaning: `niesen', schallmalend

Material: Arm. p`ṙngam, p`ṙnẹ̀em `niese'; gr. πτάρνυμαι, πταίρω `niese', πταρμός m., πτόρος m. `das Niesen' (with Inlautbehandlung the Anlautgruppe pst- : ἀποφθαράξασθαι `schnarchen' Hes.); lat. sternuō, -ere `sneeze'; air. srëod< `das Niesen', cymr. ystrew, trew ds., ystrewi, trewi ds., mbret. streuyaff, nbret. strefia `sneeze' (*striw-).

References: WP. II 101, WH. II 591.

Page(s): 846-847


Root / lemma: ptel(e)i̯ā

Meaning: a kind of tree

German meaning: Baumname?

Material: Gr. πτελέᾱ, epidaur. πελέᾱ `elm, Rüster' (letzteres with probably older Anlautsvereinfachung; unclear are τιλίαι `Schwarzpappeln' Hes. and because of Anlauts ἀπελλόν αἴγειρος Hes.); lat. tilia `Linde' (mir. teile derives from dem Engl.); ven. FlN Tiliaventus?

    arm. t`eli `elm' is Lw. from πτελέα;

    perhaps *ptel-ei̯ā `die Breitblättrige' or at most `weit die Äste Breitende'.

References: WP. II 84 f., WH. II 681 f., Pokorny KZ. 54, 307 f.

Page(s): 847


Root / lemma: puk̂-2

Meaning: to enclose, put together

German meaning: `zusammendrängen, eng umschließen'

Material: Av. pusā- f. `Stirnband'; gr. ἄμ-πυξ m. `Stirnband', Adverb. πύκα `tight, firm, dense, sensible, wise, painstaking ', in compound πυκι- (πυκι-μήδης `sensible, wise'), out of it πυκι-νός newer πυκνός `dense, tight, firm, proficient', πυκάζω `make tight, firm, umhülle dense'; alb. puth `küsse', eigentl. `umarme'.

References: WP. II 82, J. B. Hofmann, Gr. etym. Wb. 290.

Page(s): 849


Root / lemma: pu-lo-

Meaning: hair

German meaning: `steifes Haar'

Material: Old Indian pula-, pulaka- m. `das Sträuben the Härchen am Körper', pulastí- m. `schlichtes Haupthaar bearing, carrying'; Substantiv `Haupthaar', Patronymikon Pāúlastya-; gr. Plur. πύλιγγες `Haare am Hintern, Locken' Hes.; mir. ul `beard' (*pulu-), ulach `bearded', ulcha f. `beard', Ulaid `die Leute from Ulster' (*Ulutī).

Maybe alb. (*pulaka-) flokë `hair'.

References: WP. II 84, G. Liebert Nominalsuffix -ti- 191.

Page(s): 850


Root / lemma: pū̆k-1, peuk-

Meaning: thick-haired, *fox

German meaning: etwa `dense behaart, buschig (buschiger Schwanz), dichtwollig'

Material: Old Indian púccha-, -m `tail, Schweif, rod' (kann *pu[k]-sko- sein); after dem buschigen Schwanz benannt, seems got. faúhō, aisl. fōa, ahd. foha `Füchsin' (germ. -ōn), besides with masc. -s-: ags. fox, ahd. fuhs `Fuchs' etc; lit. paustìs `Tierhaar'; russ.-poln. puch (*peukso-, poukso-) `Flaumfedern, Daunen, feines wolliges Haar an animals' (out of it lit. pũkas `Flaumfeder'), russ. pušistyj `fleecy, dense, buschig', pušnój továr `Pelzwerk', èech.-nsorb. o-puš (*puchъ), opyš `tail', russ. opúška, opušina `edge (of Waldes), hem, Verbrämung'.

 

Alb. suggests that Root / lemma: pū̆k-1, peuk- : (thick-haired, *fox) is a reduced root of older lat. volpes ‘fox’, gr. alôpêx  a fox. Root / lemma: u̯l̥p-, lup- : [a kind of carnivore (fox, wolf)].

 

References: WP. II 82 f.

Page(s): 849


Root / lemma: pū̆-1, peu-, pou- also phu-

Meaning: to blow, blow up

German meaning: von der Schallvorstellung der aufgeblasenen Backen; `aufblasen; aufgeblasen, angeschwollen, angeschwollen, aufgebauscht' etc

Material: Old Indian phupphukāraka- `keuchend' (Lex.), pupphula- `Blähung' (Lex.), phuphusa-, -m `Lunge', pupphusa- `Lunge, Samenkapsel the Wasserrose' (Lex.), phū̆t-karóti `blows, pustet, schreit from vollem Halse'; arm. (h)ogi `breath, breeze, breath, soul' (*pou̯io-), heval `short or heavy breathe' (*peu̯ā-), hoylk` `congregation, meeting. Truppe'; mir. ūan `scum, froth, foam' = cymr. ewyn, bret. eon ds. (*pou̯-ino-), Pl. eien `Quellen' (compare lit. putà `Schaumblase'); abret. euonoc `schäumend'; lett. pùlis `heap, herd, nest, Strichregen', pùl̨uôt `eitern', pūl'i `Regenwolken', russ. púlja, klr. púl'a `ball';

    lit. pūrė̃ `Quaste', lett. paurs, paûre `Hinterhaupt, cranium; acme, apex ' (`Wölbung'), lit. púras `Hohlmaß', lett. pūrs `Hohlmaß for corn, grain, Aussteuerkasten', puns, pune, punis `Auswuchs am tree, Höcker', paûns, paûna `cranium, Stirnknochen', also probably apr. pounian `buttock', lit. púnė̃, lett. paũna `Ränzel, bundle'.

    pu-g-: gr. πυγή `the Hintere'; aisl. fjūk `Schneesturm', fjūka `quick, fast durch die Luft fahren, whisk ', fok `Schneegestöber', mhd. fochen `blow'; lett. pũga `gust of wind', pauga `Polster, head'.

    p(h)u-k-: arm. p`uk` `breath, breeze, wind, breaking wind, fart', Pl. `bellows', p`ẹ̀em `hauche', p`k`am `blase mich auf'; npers. pūk `das blast (um fire anzufachen), bellows', afgh. , pūk `a puff, a blast, the act of blowing';

    lit. puknė `blister, bubble', pukšlė `swelling, blister', pūkšèiù, pūkšti `pant, gasp, wheeze', pūkỹs, pũkis `Kaulbarsch' (*`Dickkopf'); lett. pukuls ` tassel ' (eig. `dicke Quaste').

    pu-p- (probably gebrochene Redupl.): alb. pupë `curd, grape, hill', púpëzë `bud, Mohn', púpulë `back'; lat. pūpus `small kid, child, knave, boy, Bübchen', *pūpa `small girl' and (late) `Pupille of Auges' (das small Spiegelbild of Beschauers in Auge of Angesprochenen'), vulgär-lat. *puppa (frz. poupe, ital. poppa) ` nipple '; air. ucht `breast' (*puptu-); lett. pups `Weiberbrust', paupt `to swell', pūpuol'i pūpuol'i `Weidenkätzchen' (with voiced-nonaspirated pubulis `bubble auf beer, Knoten in Garn'), lit. pupele, pupela, pupuole `bud', probably also lit. pupā, lett. pupa `bean'.

    p(h)u-s-: Old Indian púṣ́yati, puṣṇā́ti, pṓṣati `gedeiht, makes thrive, wächst to, ernährt', puṣṭá- `wohlgenährt, rich', púṣti-, puṣtí- f. ` prospering; flourishing, Wachstum, fullness, wealth', pṓṣa- ds., púṣpa-m `flower, blossom, bloom, blossom', puṣkalá- `rich, prächtig, in voller vitality '; gr. φῦσα `blast, bellows, bubble' (*φῡσσα or *phūt-i̯a), φῡσάω `blow, blase auf', φῡσιάω `snort', φῦσιγξ f. `Knoblauch, onion, bulb', φυσαλ(λ)ίς f. `bubble', φύσκα f. `bubble, weal, callus', φύσκη f. `Darm, Wurst', φύσκων `Dickbauch', ποι-φύσσω `blow, snort'; lat. pussula, pustula `bubble, vesicle, blister, bubble'; norw.føysa (*fausian) `swell up, aufgähren', f(j)usa `sausen, with Gewalt ausströmen'; lit. pūslė̃ `bubble', lett. pùslis ds., lit. pusnìs, pusnýnas `zusammengewehter Schneehaufe', pùšė (pũšė) `blister, bubble', pùškas `Hitzbläschen auf the Haut', lett. pušḱis `Blumenstrauß, Banderstrauß, tussock ' under likewise; aksl. *puchati `blow', *opuchnǫti `to bloat, bulge, swell', puchlъ `cavus (aufgedunsen)', russ.pychátъ `pant, gasp, Gluthitze from sich give', pýchatь `aufgeblasen, hochmütig sein', pýšnyj ` luscious, aufgeblasen, hochmütig' etc, aksl. napyštiti sę `sich aufblasen', russ. pýšèitь ds. (*pyskiti; probably also èech.-poln. etc pysk `snout, muzzle with dicken Lippen'); compare above S. 790 pāuson-?

    pu-t-: Old Indian puppuṭa- `Anschwellung an palate and gums'; gr. πύννος `rump' Hes. (*put-snos); lat. praepūtium `Vorhaut' (from einem *pūtos `penis', compare wruss. potka ds.); perhaps ir. uth `udder' (*putus); balt. *puti̯ō `blow' in lit. puèiù, pũsti `blow', reflex. `to swell', puntù, pùsti `to swell, sich aufblasen', pūslė̃ f. `bubble, bladder', putlùs `sich blähend, aufgeblasen, stout, proud', putà `Schaumblase', pùtmenos f. Pl. `swelling, lump, growth', pari-pũtėlis `aufgeblasener person', pãpautas `weal, callus', also paũtas `Ei, testicle', pùšu, pùst `blow, breathe, breathe', pũsma ` breath ', pūte `bubble, blister, bubble', probably also lit. putrà `Grütze', lett.putra `Grütze, porridge, mash'; auf voiced-nonaspirated: lett. pudurs, puduris ` tussock, heap', pudra `heap'; wruss. potka (*pъtьka) `male Glied'.

References: WP. II 79 ff., WH. II 389 f., 392, Trautmann 233 f.;

See also: compare above b(e)u-2.

Page(s): 847-848


Root / lemma: pū̆-2 : peu̯ǝ-

Meaning: to rot, stink

German meaning: `faulen; stinken'

Comments: presumably from einem pu `fie!' evolved

Material: Old Indian pū́yati `wird faul, stinkt' = av. puyeiti `wird faul', Old Indian pūya-, -m `Eiter', pū́ti- `faul, stinkend; Jauche, Eiter' = av. pūtay- `Fauligwerden, Verwesung'; pashto pūl `Trübung of Auges', westosset. ambud `faul'; Old Indian pū̆tāu (: aisl. fuð) `buttocks'; with -sk̂o-: mpers. pūsinītan `faulen', aisl. fauskr `morsches wood'; arm. hu `eitriges blood'; gr. πύ̄θω `manche faulen', πύ̄θομαι `faule', πύον (*puʷom), πύος, -εος n. `Eiter'; perhaps also πῡός m., πῦαρ, πύ̄ατος, πῡετία ` beestings '; lat. pūs, pūris `Eiter' (*puu̯os), pūteō, -ēre `faulen', pūtidus `faul' (from einem participle *pū-to-s), pŭter, -tris, -tre `faul, morsch' with ŭ;-, as mir. othrach `Misthaufen', probably also othar `ein sicker' (*putro-), othar-lige `Krankenbett, Begräbnisplatz'; aisl. fūinn `verfault, rott', fūi `Fäulnis', fūna `faulen', feyja `verfaulen lassen, verrotten lassen', got. fūls, aisl. fūll, ags. ahd. fūl `faul';

    aisl. fuð f. `cunnus', mhd. vut `cunnus', alem. vüdeli Kinderwort `Popo', geminated mhd.votze; lit. pųvù, púti `faulen', Kausat. púdau, -yti `faulen make', lett. pũt `faulen', Kausat. pũdêt `faulen make', lit. piáulas (*pēu-lo-s) m. `verfaulter tree', lett. praûls `verfaultes wood' (*pĺauls), lit. púliai m. Pl. `Eiter', puvė̃s(i)ai m. Pl. `verfaulte Sachen', lett. puveši m. Pl. `Eiter', pũžńi m. Pl. ds., papuve f. `Brachfeld'.

    with ĝ: aisl. fūki `Stank', nisl. fūki also `verfaultes Seegras, Seetang', as lett. pũnis `faulendes, eiterndes', pũnes Pl. `Modererde';

    with s: norw. føyr (*fauza-) `morsch', ndl. voos `schwammig', schweiz. gefōsen `morschgeworden'; about aisl. fauskr see above;

References: WP. II 82, WH. II 391 f., Trautmann 234; G. Liebert Nominalsuff. -ti- 151.

Page(s): 848-849


Root / lemma: pū̆-3

See also: see under peu- and pōu-.

Page(s): 849


Root / lemma: pū-ro-

Meaning: corn

German meaning: `Korn(frucht)'; griech. also `Kern, Stein von Obstfrüchten'

Material: Gr. πῡρός, dor. σπῡρός `Weizenkorn, wheat', πῡρήν `Kern from allerlei Obst and sonstigen Früchten', διός-πυρος, -ον `eine the Weichselkirsche similar fruit'; lit. pūrai `Winterweizen', lett. pûr̨i `wheat', apr. pure f. `Trespe, Bromus secalinus', aksl. pyro `Spelt', èech. pýr `Quecke', slov. pîr m., píra f. `Spelt' etc; ags. fyrs `Quecke, Ackerunkraut', engl. furze.

References: WP. II 83, Trautmann 232; compare georg. puri `bread'.

Page(s): 850


Root / lemma: rabh- or rebh- : rebh-

Meaning: to rage, be furious

German meaning: `von Ungestüm, Wut ergriffen sein'?

Material: Lat. rabiēs `fury, Tollheit', rabiō, -ere `toll sein, wüten' berührt sicch in the meaning very nahe with Old Indian rábhas- n. `Ungestüm, force, might', rabhasá- `wild, boisterous, vast, grand', saṁ-rabdha- `wütend', das above S. 652 irrig to rábhatē `erfaßt, hält sich fest' = Iábhatē, lambhatē `erfaßt, ergreift', gestellt wurde; compare mir. recht `plötzlicher Anfall, fury', das also to lat. rapiō, root *rep- belong could; ags. rabbian `rasen' from vlat. rabiāre ds.; toch. A rapurñe `ferventness, passion'.

References: WP. II 341, WH. II 413.

Page(s): 852


Root / lemma: rāp-, rēp-

Meaning: turnip

German meaning: `Rübe'

Comments: Wanderwort unbekannter origin

Material: Gr. ῥάπυς, ῥάφυς f. `Rübe', ῥάφανος, ῥαφάνη `Rettig', att. `Kohl', ῥαφανί̄ς, -ῖδος `Rettig'; lat. rāpum, rāpa `Rübe', rāpistrum `wilde Rübe', rāpīna `Rübenfeld' (as lit. ropienà) and `Rüben'; ahd. ruoba, ruoppa (*rōbjō) `Rübe', besides j-lose additional form in aisl. rōfa `the knochige part of Pferdeschwanzes', norw. rôva `tail', in addition in ablaut ahd. rāba, mhd. rābe, rāpe, rappe ds., schweiz. räb(e) bair. räben (also is ahd. rēba as jō(n)-stem must be assumed); die germ. forms können nicht from dem Lat. derive; certainly lat. Lw. is only ndl. raap, engl. rope;

    lit. rópė `Rübe', ropienà `Rubenfeld'; r.-ksl. rěpa `Rübe'; alb. repë `Rübe' from dem Lat. or Slav.; unclear is cymr. erfin `Rüben' (Plur.), bret. irvin ds. (*arbīno-);

References: WP. II 341, WH. II 418, Trautmann 237, Wissmann by Marzell, Pflanzennamen 1, 659.

Page(s): 852


Root / lemma: rā̆̆s-

Meaning: to sound, cry

German meaning: `ertönen, schreien'

Material: Old Indian rásati, rā́sate `bellow, roar, wiehert, heult, schreit, ertönt'; Old Indian rasitá- n. `Getön, bellowing, braying, roar, thunder'; got. razda `voice', ahd. rarta f. `modulatio', aisl. rǫdd f. `voice'; with ablaut ags. reord f. `voice, sound, language';

    in the case of here dän. ralle, schwed. dial. ralla etc `glucksen, schwatzen' (*razlōn)?

References: WP. II 342.

Page(s): 852


Root / lemma: rebh-1

Meaning: to move, hurry

German meaning: `sich bewegen, umher eilen'

Material: Npers. raftan `gehen', mparth. raf- ` assail, fight', osset. räväg `quick, fast';

    mir. reb `game, Tücke' (*rebā), rebrad `Kinderspiel', rebaigim `I spiele';

    germ. *reb- `in heftiger Bewegung sein', mhd. reben st. Vb. `sich bewegen, rühren', nhd. bair. rebisch `alert, awake, smart', schweiz. räbeln `rant, roister', mhd. reben `träumen, baffle sein', mnd. reven ` nonsensical talk, speak, denken', norw. dial. rava `hin and her taumeln' etc

References: WP. II 370, Szemerényi ZDMG. 101, 207 ff.;

See also: extended from er-.

Page(s): 853


Root / lemma: rebh-2

Meaning: to roof

German meaning: `überwölben, überdachen'

Material: Gr. ἐρέφω, ἐρέπτω `überdache' (*überwölbe), ὑψ-ηρεφής `with hoher Bedachung', ὄροφος `das reed, wherewith man die Häuser deckt, Dach, Zimmerdecke', ὀροφή `Bedachung'; ahd. hirnireba `cranium' (*`Hirn-bedachung'); ahd. rippa, rippi, as. ribbi, ags. ribb, aisl. rif n. `Rippe' (*rebhi̯o-; die Rippen cover die Brusthöhle, as das Dach das Haus); russ.-ksl. rebró `Rippe'; engl. reef `Riff' is dän. Lw.

References: WP. II 371, Trautmann 241.

Page(s): 853


Root / lemma: red-, rod-

Meaning: `flow'

German meaning: `fließen'

See also: see above S. 334 (ered-).

Page(s): 853


Root / lemma: reg-1 (and sreg-?)

Meaning: to paint

German meaning: `färben'?

Material: Old Indian rájyati `färbt sich, rötet sich', newer rajyate, Kaus. rajayati `färbt', secondary rañjayati; rāga m. `das Färben, rote paint, color';

    gr. ῥέζω, Aor. ῥέξαι `färben', ῥέγμα `gefärbter Stoff', ῥαγεύς (also ῥογεύς) `Färber', χρυσο-ραγές χρυσοβαφές Hes.; daß ῥέζω keinen Vokalvorschlag erfahren hat, is auffällig; compareSchwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 310 and Boisacq 838.

References: WP. II 366.

Page(s): 854


Root / lemma: reg-2

Meaning: to see

German meaning: `sehen'?

Comments: only albanesisch and Baltic

Material: Alb. ruaj `sehe an, look, see'; lit. regiù, regė́ti `see', rãgana `Hexe' (compare `böser look'), régimas `visible, apparent, manifest, obvious', lett. redzêt `see'.

References: WP. II 366, Jokl Stud. 75.

Page(s): 854


Root / lemma: reĝ-1

Meaning: right, just, to make right; king

German meaning: `gerade, gerade richten, lenken, recken, strecken, aufrichten' (also unterstützend, helfend); direction, line (Spur, Geleise) under likewise

Grammatical information: forms idg. neither root present nor perfect tense; participle Perf. Pass. reĝ-to- ` law '

Note:

Alb. shqipe `eagle' seems related to Old Indian r̥ji-pyá ` darting along ' epithet of the bird śyená- (`eagle, falcon'), [rum. ºoim `falcon'], Av. ǝrǝzi-fya- (cf. gr. ἄρξιφος ἀετὸς παρὰ Πέρσαις H., αἰγίποψ), arm. arcui (< *arci-wi) `eagle' which is evidently a form of the same word; that it is Macedonian confirms its reality.

Alb., gr., av., and Old Indian prove that from Root / lemma: er-1, or- : `eagle' derived extended Root / lemma: ar(e)-ĝ- (arĝ-?), r̥ĝi- : `glittering, white, fast' and its subsequent zero grade Root / lemma: reĝ-1 : `right, just, to make right; king'.

Material: Old Indian ŕ̥jyati, nasalized r̥ñjáti ` stretches itself, it hurries (from horses)'; probably also irajyáti (with unclear i-) ` arranges, orders, enacts, decrees '; r̥jú-, av. ǝrǝzu- ` just, right ' (in addition ǝrǝzuš ` finger ', Gen. ǝrǝzvō), Kompar. Superl. Old Indian rájīyas-, r̥jīyas- ` straight ', rájiṣṭha-, av. razišta- ` the justest, justest ';

    Old Indian r̥jrá- from horses = r̥ju-gāmin, r̥jrāśva-, av. ǝrǝzrāspa- EN eig. ` whose steeds haste straight on ', next to which compound form *r̥ji- in r̥ji-pyá- (2. part unclear) ` soaring straight ahead ' (epithet of śyēná- ` eagle, falcon '), av. ǝrǝzi-fya- m. ` eagle, name of a mountain or mountains ', by Hes. ἄρξιφος (i.e. ἄρζιφος) ἀετὸς παρὰ Πέρσαις, arm. arciv (*arcivi) ` eagle ' (beside it *r̥ju-pya-, ap. *ardufya- in npers. āluh `eagle', compare gr. αἰγυπιός, if transfigured by folk etymology after αἴξ from *ἀργυπιός); r̥ji-śvan- EN eig. ` with fast dogs ', compare in gr. ἀργός (from *ἀργ-ρος diss.) ` fast, quick ', above S. 64;

maybe truncated alb. (*ἄρξιφος), ξιφο-, shqiponjë `eagle', alb. geg. Shqipni, alb. tosk. Shqipëri ‘land of the eagles’.

    Old Indian rají- `sich aufrichtend, straight', ráji- RV perhaps `line, row' (= mnd. reke under S. 856); rájas- (av. razah-) n. `Raum';

    av. raz- (rāzayeiti, participle rā̆šta-, gr. ὀρεκτός, lat. rēctus, got. raíhts; av. rāštǝm `in gerader direction') `richten, gerade richten, sort, order, arrange', razan- `order, statute ', rašnu- `gerecht' (compare gr. ὀρέγνῡ-μι), probably also razura- n., razurā f. `wood, forest', rāzarǝ, rāzan- ` command, alignment '; rasman- m. n. `Schlachtreihe' (: gr. ὄρεγμα, lat. regimen);

    Old Indian rāj- (Nom. Sg. rā́ṭ) `king' (= lat. rēx, air. , s. also got. reiks), rā́jan- ds., rā́jñī `queen, Fürstin', rā́ṣṭi, rā́jati `is king, herrscht, glares, gleams' (denominative), rājyá- `königlich' (= lat. rēgius, compare also ahd. rīhhi), rājyá-, rā́jya- n. `Herrschaft' (= mir. rīge, compare also got. reiki), rāṣṭrī `Herrscherin', rāṣṭrá- n. `Herrschaft, Reich', av. rāstar- `Lenker, ladder';

    arm. arcvi see above; doubtful thrak. PN ΏΡῆσος;

    gr. ὀρέγω (ὀρέγνῡμι only in hom. participle ὀρεγνύ̄ς) `recke' (ὀρεκτός = av. rašta- etc), ὀριγνάομαι `strecke mich, long, reiche' (- is prefix), ὄργυια or ὀργυιά, ion. ep. ὀργυιή `Klafter', ὀρόγυια ds. (probably from *ὀρέγυια ass.); in compound ὠρυγ-, e.g. δεκώρυγος; ὄρεγμα (= av. rasman-) `das Recken the Hände, the Füße (Schritt); Darreichen'; about ἀρήγω see under beim Germ.; about ἀργός see above;

    venet. Reitia `Geburtsgöttin (compare gr. ᾽Ορθία), die die Kinder in die richtige Lage bringt' or `goddess the Erektion?';

    lat. regō, -ere, rēxī, rēctum (ē sekundäre lengthening) `gerade richten, lenken, herrschen' (= ὀρέγω, ὀρεκτός), ērigo `richte auf (= ir. ēirgim `surgo') etc; about pergō, porrigō, surgō, Adv. corgō, ergō, ergā s. WH. s. vv.), regiō `direction, line; line, region', rēgula `Richtholz, line; Richtschnur, lath' etc, rēgillus `with senkrechten Kettenfäden gewebt'; osk. Regaturei `Rectōri'? (from einem verb *regāre); lat. rogō, -āre `(die Hand ausstrecken =) ersuchen, bid, beg, ask, fragen'; rogus `Scheiterhaufen' (gr. sizil. ῥογός `Getreidescheune' is lat. Lw.) probably eig. `aufgerichteter shove ' (= germ. *rakaz); rēx, rēgis `king' (= Old Indian rāj- etc), rēgīna `queen' (marr. regen[ai] Dat.), rēgius `königlich' (= Old Indian rājya-);

    lat. rigeō, -ēre `starren, starr, steif sein', rigidus `starr, steif', rigor `die Starre, esp. vor coldness; die coldness' (diese spez. meaning perhaps durch frīgus begünstigt); in the case of for *regēre after ērigĕre?;

    air. reg-, rig- `austrecken, e.g. die hand', Perf. reraig (*re-rog-e) `direxit'; *eks-reg- (: lat. ērigō) e.g. in at-reig `uplifts sich', ēirge `surrectio'; ablaut. air. rog(a)id `strecktaus', mcymr. rho `gift', rhoï `give'; mcymr. dy-re `steht auf', dy-rein `sich erheben', rhein `steif, gereckt' (: mir. rigin ds.), acymr. ar-cib-renou `sepulti', mcymr. ar-gyu-rein `Begraben' (*are-com-reg(i)-no) etc; mir. rēn `span' (*reg-no-); air. recht (tu-stem), cymr. rhaith ` law ', bret. reiz `order, law, right', gall. Rectu-genus; air. -, Gen. rīg `king' (= Old Indian rāj-, lat. rēx), cymr. rhi `prince, lord', gall. Catu-rīx, Pl. -rīges eig. `people of C.', Rīgo-magus eig. `Königsfeld' (acorn. ruy, mbret. roe, nbret. roue `king' probably frz.), air. rīgain `queen' (*rēĝe =) cymr. rhiain `queen, Dame'; mir. rīge n. `Königreich' (*rēĝi̯om); air. rīched n. `Königreich' (*rēĝi-sedom);

    got. raíhts, aisl. rēttr, ags. riht, as. ahd. reht `recht, straight' (= av. rašta- etc), got. ga-raíhtjan, ahd. rihten etc `richten'; aisl. rēttr, Gen. rēttar `das right, law, court' (= kelt. *rektu-; wgrm. durch das n. of participle ahd. etc reht `right' ersetzt); got. rahtōn `darreichen'; Kaus. got. uf-rakjan `in die Höhe recken, ausstrecken', ahd. recchen `ausstrecken, raise, uplift, reichen, cause, say, define', nhd. recken, as. rekkian `tell, define', ags. reccan (reahte) `ausstrecken, leiten, define, reckon', aisl. rekja `strecken, outspread, define, verkünden' (partly iterative *rakjan under Verdrängung from *reĝō, partly denominative); aisl. rakna `ausgestreckt become, zur Besinnung kommen';

    ags. racu f. `Flußbett, run, flow', engl. rake `pathway, way, Geleise', ags. racian `run, leiten, lenken', aisl. rekja spor `die spoor verfolgen', mnd. reke f. (*raki) `row, order', raken `meet, erreichen'; ags. racu f. ` narration, account', as. raka, ahd. rahha `Rechenschaft, thing', aisl. rǫk Nom. Pl. `Ursprung, Ursache, ground'; aisl. rakr, fries. mnd. rak `straight, recht' (= lat. rogus); e-grade: mhd. gerech `wohlgeordnet', as. rekōn `richten, sort, order, arrange', mnd. reken `right, unbehindert, often', ahd. rehhanōn `sort, order, arrange, reckon, Rechenschaft ablegen', ags. ge-recenian `define', engl. reckon ` therefore halten'; ags. recen `quick, fast, willing, ready'; aisl. land-reki `king', ahd. anet-rehho `Enterich'; in the case of with the outlook the zum Zusammenscharren ausgereckten Hand die family of got. rikan `anhäufen', mhd. rechen `zusammenscharren, anhäufen, gather, collect', aisl. raka, mnd. raken (*rakēn) `(together)scratch', aisl. reka, ahd. rehho `Rechen, Harke', as. reka f. `Rechen', as. raka, ags. racu, schwed. raka f. ds., ē-grade: norw. dial. raak f. `spoor, Streif, furrow, row', isl. rāk f. `Streif' (compare Old Indian rāji-, rājī `stripe, row') here belongs, is dubious; durch borrowing from dem Kelt. vor the Mediaverschiebung: got. reiks `ruler, vornehm, mighty' (kelt. rīg-s), aisl. rīkr `mighty'; ahd. rīhhi, as. rīki, ags. rīce (kelt. *rīgi̯o-) `mighty, vornehm, rich', nhd. reich; got. reiki, ahd. rīhhi `Reich' (kelt. *rīgi̯on);

    ō-grade, with from `aufrichten, help' entwickelter meaning: aisl. rǿkja, ags. reccan (for*rēcan after reccan `ausstrecken'; but preterit rōhte), as. rōkian, ahd. geruohhen ` care bear, carry, Rücksicht nehmen', ahd. ruoh, ruohha `Achthaben, Bemühung, Sorgfalt', mnd. rōke m. ds., mhd. ruochlōs, ags. rēcelēas (nhd. ruchlos, engl. reckless) `unbekümmert, unworried ', aisl. rǿkr `sorgsam', die with gr. ἀρήγω `help, stehe bei', ἀρηγών, -όνος, ἀρωγός `Helfer', ἀρωγή `help' sich engstens zusammenschließen;

    nasalized (compare das Lit., also Old Indian r̥ñjáti): ags. ranc `straight, stout, proud, bold', mnd. rank `schlank, thin, weak' (*gereckt), aisl. rakkr `schlank, erect, bold'; as. ags. rinc, aisl. rekkr `man';

    lit. nasalized žem. rę́žious, rę́žtis `sich recken', ablaut. rą́žaus, rą́žytis (16. Jh. ranszies), rąžà f. `Recken', lett. ruôzîtiês `sich recken'; russ. su-rázina `good order';

    toch. A räk-, rak- `hinbreiten, bedecken', В räk- ds., A rkäl `cover'.

References: WP. II 362 ff., WH. II 426 f., 432 f., 434 f., Wissmann Nom. Postverb. 106, Trautmann 244.

Page(s): 854-857


Root / lemma: reĝ-2, rek̂- (rek-?)

Meaning: damp; rain

German meaning: `feucht, bewässern, Regen'

Material: 1. reĝ-: lat. rigāre `bewässern' (with i from e), alb. rrjeth, Aor. rrodha `fließe, quelle, tropfe'; norw. dial. rake m. `Feuchtigkeit, Nässe', aisl. raki ds., nisl. rakr `humid, wet';

    2. rek̂- (rek-?) in: got. rign n. `rain' (*rek̂-nó-), krimgot. reghen, aisl. regn n., as. regan, regin m., afries. rein, ags. reg(e)n, rēn m., ahd. regan, regin, regen, mhd. regen m.; aisl. rigna `rain', ahd. reganôn ds. etc; lit. (with westidg. k?) rõkia, rõkti `fein rain', rôkė ` dust rain '.

References: WP. II 365 f., WH. II 435.

Page(s): 857


Root / lemma: regʷos-

Meaning: darkness

German meaning: `Dunkelheit'

Grammatical information: n.

Material: Old Indian rájanī- `night'; gr. ἔρεβος ` darkness the Unterwelt' (-suggestion); arm. erek and erekoy `evening'; also Adverb erek `gestern'; got. riqis, -izis n. ` darkness', nisl. røkkr, -rs ` darkness, dawn, twilight'; here perhaps gr. ὀρφνός `dark' (*orgʷsno-) and toch. A orkäm (*orgʷmo-) ` darkness '; different above S. 334.

References: WP. II 367, Benveniste Hirt-Festschrift 2, 236, Burrow BSOAS 12, 645 f.

Page(s): 857


Root / lemma: reibh-

Meaning: expr. root

German meaning: `ertönen'?

Material: Old Indian rébhati `creak, knistern, mumble, murmur; cry'; lett. rìbêt (also ribêt) `din, drone, rumble, bawl, blaster'.

References: WP. II 349;

See also: probably to rei-3.

Page(s): 860


Root / lemma: reidh-

Meaning: to ride, go

German meaning: `fahren, in Bewegung sein'

Material: Mir. rīad(a)im `fahre' (*reidh-); cymr. rhwydd-hau `beeilen, erleichtern'; aisl. rīða `in schwankender Bewegung sein, ride'; ags. rīdan `ride'; afries. rīda, mnd. rīden, ahd. rītan, mhd. rīten, nhd. reiten;

    lett. raidīt `eilig senden, hetzen', raiditiês `zappeln';

    germ. *ridjan- steckt in ags. ridda, ahd. ritto ` equestrian ', extended in afries. ridder, mnd. ridder (out of it aisl. riddari), mhd. ritter;

    gall. rēda `vierrädriger Reisewagen'; ir. dē-riad `Zweigespann' (idg. *reidhā); aisl. reið f. `Reiten, Reiterschar, Wagen', and. brande-rēda `Brandbock'; ags. rād f. `Reiten, pull, journey; Musik'; engl. road `way'; ahd. reita, mhd. reite `Wagen, Kriegszug, kriegerischer Anfall' (germ. *raidō, idg. *roidhā);

    compare moreover gall. rēdārius `Lenker einer rēda'; PN Еро-rēdia, PN Epo-rēdo-rīx; cymr. ebrwydd `quick, fast' (*epo-rēdi-);

    germ. *(ga)-raiðia- in got. ga-raiÞs `angeordnet, bestimmt', aisl. greiðr `light to bewerkstelligen, simple, just, clear, bright'; afries. rēde, ags. gerǣde, rǣde `fertig, light, clear, bright, simple, just' (engl. ready); mnd. gerēde, rēde `willing, ready, fertig'; mhd. gereit, gereite `fertig, willing, ready, zur Hand'; as Substantiv in aisl. reiði n. and m. `Ausrüstung', norw. greide n. `Pferdegeschirr'; ags. gerǣde n. `Geschirr, armament, armor'; mnd. gerēde `appliance, Aussteuer'; ahd. gireiti n. `wagon, cart'; mhd.gereite n. `Wagen, Geschirr, tool'; aisl. reiðr `durchreitbar, willing, ready';

    got. ga-raidjan `dispose, festsetzen'; aisl. greiða `sort, order, arrange, pay, help'; ags. (ge)rǣdan `sort, order, arrange, help'; mhd. (ge)reiten `bereiten, sort, order, arrange, reckon, pay'.

    reidhi- in ir. rēid `planus, facilis'; acymr. ruid, ncymr. rhwydd `light, free'; abret. roed in den PN Roed-lon, Roidoc, Roet-anau, nbret. rouez `rare, clair-semé'; lett. raids `willing, ready'.

    reidho- in ir. rīad `Fahren, Reiten'; cymr. gorŵydd `horse'; mlat.-gall. ve-rēdus, para-ve-rēdus (from *vo-rēdos) `Beipferd'; compare ahd. ga-rît n. `equitatus'; mhd. īn-rit m. `Einritt'; mnd. rit n. `Ritt';

    to reidh- also das Abstraktsuffix cymr. -rwydd m.: air. Kollektivsuffix -rad in air. ech-rad f. `Pferde' (*ek̂u̯o-reidhā);

    gr. ἔρῑθος `servant' with prothet. - reiht sich an die Dienernamen with einer primary meaning of Laufens an, whether here gehörig.

References: WP. II 348 f., WH. II 425.

Page(s): 861


Root / lemma: reid-

Meaning: to lean on, support

German meaning: `anlehnen, stützen'?

Material: Gr. ἐρείδω `lehne an, unterstütze, dränge, strenge mich an' (hom. ἐρηρέδαται for -ριδ-), ἔρεισμα `pad', ἀντ-ηρίς -ηρίδος `Strebepfeiler, pad'; lat. ridica `ein durch fissures größerer Pflöcke gewonnener Weinpfahl'?

References: WP. II 348, WH. II 434;

See also: probably to rei-5.

Page(s): 860


Root / lemma: reig- or reiĝ-

Meaning: to bind

German meaning: `binden'

Comments: only kelt. and germ.

Material: Ir. ad-riug `alligō', con-riug `colligō', do-riug `nudō', fo-riug `sistō'; *rigo- steckt in mir. ārach `manacle' (bret. ere) from *ad-rigo-, cenn-rach `Halfter' (= cymr. pen-rhe `Stirnband'); *reigo- in cymr. modrwy f. `ring', rhwym (*reig-smn̥) m. `manacle' (Pl. acymr. ruimmein), aerwy (*ad-reigo-) `Halfter', air. būarach, cymr. burwy `Kuhfessel', cyfrwy `saddle' (*kom-reigo-); mbret. rum `bande, troupeau' geht auf *roig-smn̥ back;

    ir. cuimrech n. `manacle, Fesseln' (bret. kevre `lien') corresponds, da die basic form*kom-rig-om is, bis auf das suffix dem lat. corrigia, corrigium `Schuhriemen, strap';

    mhd. ric Gen. rickes m. `band, strap, manacle, Verstrickung, Knoten' and ricken `anbinden'.

References: WP. II 347, Loth RC. 41, 220, WH. I 278 f.;

See also: probably extension from rei-1; Bedeutungsentwicklung as (see 858) rei-p- `wickeln, bind'.

Page(s): 861-862


Root / lemma: (reiĝ-), rēiĝ-

Meaning: to stretch, stretch out (the hand)

German meaning: etwa `recken, ausstrecken, with ausgestreckter Hand langen or darreichen under likewise'

Comments: bedeutungsverwandt with reĝ-1.

Material: Ahd. reichen `erreichen, (er)langen, darreichen, sich erstrecken', mnd. rēcken, ags. rǣc(e)an `ausstrecken, reichen, darbieten' (engl. reach), aisl. reik f. `Scheitel in Haar'; lit. réiž-iuos, -tis `sich brüsten', ráiž-from, -ytis `sich wiederholt recken'; as `Tortur durch Strecken the Glieder' seems also related air. riag `Tortur', ringid `foltert, peinigt'; mir. rēimm ` buffoon ' (*reiĝ-smi-), mcymr. dir-rwyn (*reiĝ-no-) `Tortur, affliction'; cyf-rwyn-ein ds.

References: WP. II 347 f., Trautmann 242, Loth RC. 42, 373.

Page(s): 862


Root / lemma: reik-

Meaning: to shake; pole (?)

German meaning: `sich aufrecken' and `wackeln'; `Stange, Latte'

Material: Norw. rjaa m. ` shaft, pole zum Trocknen of Getreides' (*rīhan-), schwed. dial. ri f. `picket, pole, shaft, rod'; mnd. rick, reck n. (*rikkó-) `lange dünne shaft, pole', mhd. ric, -ckes m. `waagrechtes Gestell, shaft, pole', nhd. Reck; ahd. rigil m., mnd. regel m. `bar, bolt, Reeling', nnd. also rīchel, older ndl. rijgel now, yet richel `bar, bolt'; isl. rīgr m. `stiffness' (also name of Heimdallr); mnd. rēch `steif', aisl. reigjask `den Körper aufrichten, sich anspannen', ags. rǣge-rēose `Muskeln am backbone, spine'; aisl.riga, -aða `(hin and her) move, zum Wanken bringen', schweiz. rigelen `waver'; norw. dial.rigga `upset'; norw. rikke `move, rücken', ostfries. rikke(l)n `hin and her bewegen, wobble, sway'; lett. rìku (rìkstu), rikt ` curdle, coagulate, harden, fest become'.

References: WP. II 346 f.;

See also: probably as reik̂- to reiĝ-; s. also rei-5.

Page(s): 862


Root / lemma: rei-1

Meaning: to tear, cut

German meaning: `ritzen, reißen, schneiden'

Material: Lat. rīma `Ritze' (*rei-mā); mir. rēo `stripe' (*ri-u̯o-); ags. rāw, rǣw f. `row' (*roi-u̯ā); lit. rievà `Felskluft, Fels, hill' (compare lat. rumpō : rūpēs), raĩvė `stripe', lett. riêwa `Ritze, Falte, furrow'; in addition probably as `Grenzstreifen' or `Hügelreihe': mir. rōen `way, Bergkette' (therefrom rōenaid `*bahnt sich einen way' > `besiegt', rōen Niederlage'), bret. run `hill'; aisl.rein f. `Grenzstreifen', ahd. rein, nhd. Rain ds. (kelto-germ. *roi-no-).

    extensions:

    reib-: ags. rī̆pan, riopan `reap' (engl. reap), rifter `sickle', rī̆p n. `harvest', norw. rīpa `ritzen', rĭpa `abreißen, abstreifen', mengl. ripelen, nengl. ripple `Flachs break, rupture', mnd.repen, repelen ds., ahd. rifila, riffila `Säge, gezackter Berggrat'; as. rīpi, ags. rīpe, ahd.rīfi, nhd. reif (`zum Ernten reif').

    reig- see under besonderem Schlagwort.

    reik(h)-: Old Indian rikháti, likháti `ritzt', rēkhā́, lēkhā́ `crack, line, line'; gr. ἐρείκω `rupture, tear, rend', ἤρικε `barst', ἐρεικίς, ἐρικίς, -ίδος `geschrotete barley' (-ι-Schreibung for -ει-); perhaps lat. rixa `tätlicher quarrel, fight'; cymr. rhwygo `tear', rhwyg m. `break, col, gap', mbret. roegaff `tear, rend', nbret. reuga; ablaut. mcymr. go-rugaw `tear'; mhd. rīhe `line', nhd. Reihe, ahd. rīhan `auf einen Faden pull', with ablaut and gramm. Wechselahd. riga `line', mhd. rige `line, row, künstlicher Wassergraben', nhd. Riege; norw. reig m. `row, Zeile';

    lit. riekiù, riẽkti `(bread)cut, clip, zum erstenmal pflügen', riekė̃ `Brotschnitte', raikaũ, -ýti `bread mehrfach in Schnitten schneiden';

    similarly reik̂- in Old Indian riśáti, liśáti `rupft, reißt ab, weidet ab' (npers. rištan `spinnen', bal. rēsag, rēsaɣ `spinnen, flax, wattle, braid').

    reip-: gr. ἐρείπω `stürze um (tr.), stürze nieder' (intr.), ἐρείπια n. Pl. `ruinae', ἐρίπνη f. `Absturz, slope'; lat. rīpa `steiler edge, bank, border, shore'; aschwed. rīva, aisl. rīfa `tear (tr.)', rifna `zerspringen, aufspringen', rifa f. `crack, col, gap', mnd. rīven `rub', afries. rīva ` rend ', nd. ribben `pluck, Flachs pluck'; aisl. rīfr `erwünscht' (compare `sich um etwas reißen'), ags. rīf `vast, grand, violent', mnd. rīve ` wasteful '; ablaut. aisl. reifr `blithe, glad, aufgeräumt', reifa `fördern, beschenken'; ostfries. riffel `furrow', ags. ge-riflian `runzeln'; with p durch consonant stretch: aisl. rīp `Oberkante eines Bootes', ostfries. rip(e) `edge, bank, border, shore', mhd. rīf `bank, border, shore';

    besides eine germ. family with `scrap, shred, stripe' as basic meaning, so that hier anreihbar, and `wickeln, bind' as abgeleitete meaning: aisl. rif n. `Reff', mnd. rift ds., aisl. rift (ript) f. `Stück Zeuges', rifr m. (*riƀi-) `Rolle, Weberbaum', rifa ` sew ', ags. rift f. `dress, Schleier, curtain', ahd. bein-refta ` britches '; aisl. reifar Pl. f. `Wickel', reifa `wickeln', ags. ā-rāfian `loswickeln' (similarly ndl. dial. rijvelen `wear out');

    with consonant stretch -p(p)-: got. skauda-raip `Schuhriemen', aisl. reip, ags. rāp `rope, cable', ahd. reif `strap, Faßreif, ring';

    with germ. -sp- (from -ps-?): aisl. rispa `aufreißen' and f. rispa `ein leichter Kratzer', aschwed. rispa `discord', nd. rispe `Flachsraufe', rispen `den Flachs durch die Raufe pull'(nhd. Rispe `Samenbüschel' but probably with originally hr-), ahd. rispeln `zusammenraffen', bair.ab-reispen `abzupfen, abbrechen', mhd. be-rispeln `rebuke, reproach, bestrafen'.

    reis-: Old Indian riṣyati, réṣati `wird injures, hurts, disables, nimmt damage; damages ', riṣṭá- `injures, hurts, disables', rēṣayati `schädigt, straft', riṣanyáti `geht fehl', riṣaṇyú- `unzuverlässig'; av. raēš-, iriš- `injure, verwunden; damage leiden' (present raēšyeiti tr., irišyeiti tr., intr., Kaus. raēšayeiti), participle irišta- ` damages ', raēša- m., raēšah- n. `Schädigung', probably also raēša- `cleft, fissure in the earth'; aisl. rīsta (reist) and rista schw. V. `cut, clip, ritzen, aufritzen', rista `Ritz, slit', aschwed. rīsta `(Runen) ritzen', mnd. risten `einritzen', aisl. ristill m. `Pflugeisen', mhd. rist m. n. `Pflugschar, Pflugsterz'; lett. risums, risiêns `crack, slit', aksl. rěšiti `loosen'.

References: WP. II 343 ff., WH. II 435 f., 436, 438, Trautmann 241.

Page(s): 857-859


Root / lemma: rei-2, roi-

Meaning: variegated, speckled

German meaning: in Worten for `buntgestreift, fleckig'

Material: Lit. raĩ-nas `gray, buntgestreift'; raĩ-mas `varicolored'; air. rīabach ` dappled ', lit. raĩ-bas ` dappled, graubunt' (raĩbti `flicker'), lett. ràibs `varicolored, fleckig', esp. from animals, apr. roaban `gestreift', russ. klr. ribyj `varicolored'; *roi-k̂o- seems die base from ahd. rēh n., rēho m., ags. , rāha m. `roe deer', aisl. f., ags. rǣge (*raigjōn-), ahd. rêia, réia (unclear) and nhd. Ricke, ndl. rekke `Ricke', (expressive) wherefore probably Old Indian riśya- m. `Antilopenbock'.

References: WP. II 346, Trautmann 235 f., Specht Idg. Dekl. 115.

Page(s): 859


Root / lemma: rei-3, rē(i)-

Meaning: to cry, bellow, etc. onomatopoeic words

German meaning: Schallwurzel `schreien, brüllen, bellen' etc

Comments: s. also reu-, rēu-, rū̆-

Material: Old Indian rā́yati ` barks '; lit. ríeju ríeti `losschreien, scold, chide', refl. `sich quarrel, squabble'; lett. reju, rêju, riêt `bark, bay'; ablaut. rãju, rãt `scold, chide', lit. rojóju, rojóti `unordentlich krähen' (vom rooster, cock)?, ksl. rarъ ` clangor ' (èech. raroh m. `Würgfalke'), russ. rájatь `klingen, sound'; aisl. rāmr `hoarse' (*rēma-); derived from einem noun *rama is remja `roar, bellow'; möglich here also rōmr `voice, sound, pronunciation'; compare further ags. rārian `bloken, roar, bellow', ahd. rērēn ds. etc;

    aisl. jarma `bleat', wherefore arm. oṙnal `heule' belongs, weis perhaps auf eine vollere root erǝ-, rē- there.

    extensions:

    rēb- `rülpsen':

    norw. dial. ræ̆̄pa `den Mund laufen lassen' (*rēpjan), rapa `rülpsen'; aisl. repta (*rapatjan) `rülpsen'; dän. ræbe ds., jüt. also `quaken' s. Falk-Torp 928; compare reub- under reu-1.

    rē̆k- `roar, bellow, cry':

    lat. raccāre, rancāre `roar, bellow' (vom Tiger); rāna (*rācsnā) `frog'; cymr. rhegen f. (*rakinā) `Wachtel'; mhd. ruohen `roar, bellow, grunt' (besides rōhen to reu-k-), amhd. ruohelen, mhd. rüehelen `wiehern, roar, bellow, röcheln' (besides rüheln, rücheln to *reu-k-); lit. rėkiù, rė̃kti `roar, bellow', lett. rèkt ds.; aksl. rekǫ `say'; with g: lat. ragere `roar, bellow'.

    rēt- `roar, bellow, rant, roister':

    mhd. rüeden `rant, roister', bair. rüeden `roar, bellow, rant, roister, in the rutting, heat sein'; ahd. ruod ` bellowing, braying, roar ', ir-ruota `rugiebam', ags. rēðe, `cruel, savage, terrible'.

References: WP. II 342 f., WH. II 414, 416, 421 f., Trautmann 242 f.

Page(s): 859-860


Root / lemma: rei-4 : rēi-

Meaning: thing; possession

German meaning: `Besitz, Sache'

Comments: after Burrow (Sanscrit 178, 245) wäre ē from eH vor originated?

Material: Old Indian rai- m. f. ` appanage, Reichtum' in rā́ḥ, rāyáḥ (originally i-stem); das ā from rāḥ after dem Akk. Sg. rām, the likewise analogisches ā hat (after gām, above S. 482); rayí- `gift, appanage, Kleinod' (av. Akk. Pl. raēš, leg. rayīš), rayi-vánt-, mostly rē-vánt- `rich'; av. Instr. Sg. raya (leg. rāyā) = Old Indian rāyā́ (to rā́ḥ), av. raēvant `rich'; Old Indian av. rā- `give' (extended Old Indian rāsatē `gives'), Old Indian rātí- `gift, giver'; Old Indian rāta-, av. rātō `bestowed';

    lat. rēs, reī `thing, appanage ' (das ē after dem Akk. rēm from *reHim?), umbr. re-per `pro rē', Dat. Abl. ri; in addition lat. reus `Prozesspartei, the (die) Angeklagte' (*rēi̯-os); unclear mcymr. rei `Reichtum'.

References: WP. II 343, WH. II 430 f., 432, Wackernagel-Debrunner III 214 ff.; O. Szemerényi nimmt (brieflich) with Burrow (Sanscrit 178, 245) and Kurylowicz (Études 36 f.) eine basic form *reHi- for das noun and *reH- for das verb an (?).

Page(s): 860


Root / lemma: rei-5

German meaning: `stützen'

See also: see under reid-, reik- and rem-.

Page(s): 860


Root / lemma: rei-r(ēi)-

Meaning: to tremble (expr.)

German meaning: `beben, zittern'; Schallwort

Material: Old Indian lēlāyáti, lēlīyáti ` sways, swings, zittert', lēlā́yā Instr. ` fluctuating, in unruhiger Bewegung';

    got. reiran (schw. V.) `tremble, quiver', reirō `Zittern, Erdbeben'.

References: WP. II 349.

Page(s): 862


Root / lemma: rei̯ǝ-, rī-

German meaning: `bewege, fließen'

See also: see above S. 330 f. (er-3)

Page(s): 862


Root / lemma: rek-1

Meaning: to tower; pole

German meaning: `emporragen'; `Stange' etc

Comments: as reik-, see there.

Material: Aisl. f. (*rahō) ` shaft, pole in einem scaffold, trestle zum Trocknen, Schiffsrahe', mnd. , mhd. rahe f. ` shaft, pole, Rahe'; norw. dial. raaga (*rēgōn-) `dünne shaft, pole', nd. rack `Gestell, Wandregal', mhd. reck(e) `lange dünne shaft, pole, esp. zum Überhängen from Kleidern'; mhd. rach, -hes and rac, -ges, llengthened grade ræhe `steif'; mhd. regen st. V. `sich erheben, starren, emporragen', Causative. regen schw. V., `aufrichten, erregen, move, waken, arouse, revive' (*ragjan), nhd. regen; norw. dial. raga `waver'; very doubtful, in the case of as reduced grade here mhd. rogel `not fest, fluctuating ', sich rugelen `sich rühren', nhd. dial. rogeln `wobble, sway', aisl. rugla `in Unordnung bringen, stören'; geminated rugga `swing, move'; rykkia `rücken, hurry', ags. roccian `swing' (engl. rock), ahd. rucken, nhd. `rücken', aisl. rykkr, ahd. ruc m. `jerk' (*rukki-);

    lit. rė́klės `Stangengerüst zum Trocknen, Räuchern'.

References: WP. II 361 f., Wissmann Nom. postverb. 176.

Page(s): 863


Root / lemma: rek̂Þh-

Meaning: to harm

German meaning: `schädigen'

Material: Old Indian rákṣas- n. `agony, Quälgeist, fiend, demon', av. rašah- `Schädigung, damage, esp. the in other Leben', rašayeiti `schädigt'; gr. ἐρέχθω `zerre and beutle hin and her' (the storm das ship); ᾽Ερεχθεύς `the Erderschütterer'.

References: WP. II 362;

See also: in addition ŕ̥k̂Þos `bear' as `Schädiger'.

Page(s): 864


Root / lemma: rek̂-, reĝ-

Meaning: to bind

German meaning: `binden'?

Material: Old Indian raśanā f. `rope, strap, Gürtel', raśmi- m. `Strang, strap, rein'; aschwed. hurraka (hurð-) `Heck-band, strap', aisl. rakki m. `Stropp zum Festhalten the Rahe', ags. racca m. ds., aisl. rekendi n., rekendr f. Pl. `Kette, manacle'; ags. racente, racete f., ahd. rahhinza f. d.

References: WP. II 362.

Page(s): 863


Root / lemma: remb-, romb-, romb-

Meaning: to hack, notch

German meaning: `hacken, kerben, Kanten machen'

Material: Mhd. rumph, nhd. Rumpf, isl. rumpr `rump', md. mnd. rump `trunk' (*`abgehacktes Stück'); in the case of to lit. rum̃bas `scar', rumbúoti `umsäumen' (*rombo-), ablaut. rémbėti `Narben bekommen', lett. rùobs `Kerbe' (*rombo-), slav. *rǫbъ m. in serb. rûb `hem', slov. rǫ̂b `edge, hem', slov. rǫ́biti `hacken, einsäumen', èech. roubiti ds. etc?

Maybe alb. rrëmbej `kidnap'

References: WP. II 373, Trautmann 236, Vasmer 2, 541 f.

Page(s): 864-865


Root / lemma: rem-, remǝ-

Meaning: to rest; to support

German meaning: `ruhen, sich aufstützen; stützen'; in Germ. `Latte, Leiste'

Comments: relationship to erǝ-, rē- `ruhen' (see 338 f.) is doubtful

Material: Old Indian rámatē `steht still, ruht, findet Gefallen, pflegt the love', rámati, ramṇā́ti, rā̆mayati `bringt zum stille stand, makes tight, firm, ergötzt'; av. rāmyat̃ `er soll ruhen', rāmōiδwǝm `ihr mögetstehen bleiben', rāmayeiti `beruhigt', osset. urōmun, urōmyn ` restrain, hemmen, beruhigen'; Old Indian rā́ma- m. `Lust, pleasure, joy', rāmá- `erfreuend, mellifluous, reizend', av. rāman- n. `Ruhe, peace', npers. rām `Ruhe; cheerful, cheerful'; Old Indian ránti f. `Erquickung, Ergötzung', raṁsu Adv. `joyful, gratifying'; ratá- `stand geblieben, sich genügen lassend, sich ergötzend', ratá- n. `Liebeslust', ráti- f. `Rast, Ruhe, Lust';

    with unclear η: gr. ἠρέμα, -ας `ruhig, gentle, leise', ἠρεμαῖος `ruhig', ἠρεμέστερος Kompar. (compare den es-stem got. rimis);

    air. fo-rim- `place, lay, place' (originally *`stützen'; ri- = r̥-); perhaps mir. rinde `vessel';

    ahd. rama `pad, Gestell, Webe- or Stickrahmen', mnd. rame (= mnd. mhd. reme), ramen ds.; got. rimis n. `Ruhe'; aisl. rǫnd f. `edge, hem, shield', ags. rand m. `Schildrand, shield', ahd. rant m. `edge, Einfassung, shield', norw. rande and ablaut. rinde `Erdrücken, bench ', krimgot.rintsch `mons', span. (*got.) randa `Leiste'; norw. rand f. `crossbar, crossbeam, Sims', nhd. bair. ranten ` shaft, pole' (: lit. ram̃tis, ram̃stis `pad, handrail'); ahd. ramft `edge, Einfassung' kann *rom-ti- sein, but at most also auf the extension rem-bh- based on, compare Old Indian rambhá- m. `staff, pad', norw. rimb, rimme `Erdrücken', lit. rambùs `idle', rémbėti `träge sein; nicht recht wachsen wollen';

    aisl. rim f. `langes, thin board', engl. dial. rim `Leitersprosse', ostfries. rim `Dachsparren'; ags. rima `edge, limit, boundary, Küste' (engl. rim), aisl. rimi m. `Landrücken'; perhaps durch hybridization with einer root rei-, deren extensions in reid- and reik- vorliegen (Wissmann);

    lit. remiù, rem̃ti `stützen', Inchoativ rìmsti, rìmti `ruhig become', Kausat. ramìnti and rámdau, -yti `beruhigen', ram̃tis `pad', ràmas `Ruhe', ramùs `ruhig', rōmùs `ruhig, sanftmütig', lett. rāms `tame, domesticated, still, godly, pious';

    toch. А В räm-, В ram- `sich neigen, beugen'.

References: WP. II 371 f., Trautmann 243 f.

Page(s): 864


Root / lemma: rendh-

Meaning: to tear

German meaning: `(zer)reißen'

Material: Old Indian rándhram `aperture, cleft, fissure, Нöhle'; ags. rendan `tear', mnd. rende `Zerbrochenes'; ahd. rinda, rinta, nhd. Rinde, ags. rind(e) f. `bark, crust', ablaut. mnl. hess. runde f. `Wundschorf'.

References: WP. II 372, 374.

Page(s): 865


Root / lemma: rent-

Meaning: thing

German meaning: `thing'?

Material: Under this root könnten vereinigt become:

    Old Indian rátnam `property, appanage, blessing' (*rn̥tnó-) and ir. rét `thing' (*rn̥tu- or *rentu-); also lett. ruotîgs `with allem versehen' (whether from *ront-).

References: WP. II 374.

Page(s): 865


Root / lemma: rep-

Meaning: to grab, rip out

German meaning: `an sich reißen, raffen'

Material: Old Indian presumably rápas- n. `Gebrechen, körperlicher damage, injury ', raphitá- ` woeful, wretched, miserable (damages)'; gr. ἐρέπτομαι `rupfe, reiße ab, fresse', ἅρπυια (Asper after dem unverwandten ἅρπη, ἁρπάζω, whereat s. *ser-, serp- `sickle'), ἀρέπυια `Harpye', hom. ἅρπυιαι ἀν-ηρέψαντο (Hs. ἀνηρείψαντο); alb. rjep `ziehe from, ab, rob';

Maybe alb. rrep-të ‘strict, tough, inexorable, tough, unkind, hard’

lat. rapiō, -ere `raffen, an sich reißen, hastiig ergreifen, rob' (a = e); mir. recht `rage, fury, fury' (*reptu-), s. also rabh-; germ.*rafisjan originally `körperlich punish, curse' (denominative eines -es-stem as Old Indian rápas-); aisl. refsa, ahd. refsen `chastise, castigate, punish, curse', as. respian ds., ags. refsan, repsan, respan `rebuke, reproach', next to which *rafjan in mhd. reffen = refsen, compare with lengthened grade ags. gerǣf n. (?) = geresp ` accusation, reprimand';

    aisl. rafr `stripe Heilbuttenfleisch', refill `stripe, Stück eines Gewebes' (`ragged '), ndl. rafel ` fibre, filament, ausgezupfter filament ', rafelen `wear out';

    lit. ap-rė́pti `fassen, ergreifen, begreifen', lit. rẽplės (apr. raples) f. Pl. `pliers'.

References: WP. II 369 f., WH. II 417, Trautmann 244.

Page(s): 865


Root / lemma: ret(h)-

Meaning: to run, to roll

German meaning: `laufen, rollen'

Material: Old Indian rátha- m. `Wagen', rathī́- `Wagenlenker', ráthya- `zum Wagen gehörig', rathar-yáti `fährt in Wagen'; ratheṣṭhā̆́- `warrior' = av. raϑaēštå ds.; av. raϑa- `Wagen', raiϑya `Fahrstraße'; lat. rota `wheel', birotus `zweirädrig' (: lit. dvirãtis), rotundus `scheibenrund';

Maybe alb. rreth `hoop, rim (of wheel); circle', rota `wheel'.

ir. roth m. `wheel'; cymr. rhod f. `wheel'; gall. PN Roto-magus (Rouen); kelt. *-reto- `run, flow', neutr. Abstraktsuffix in cymr.brith-red `perplexity' = mir. brecht-rad `Mannigfaltigkeit', Kollektivsuffix in mir. aig-red `Eis'; lengthened grade *-rōto- in mcymr. rhawd `run, flow, Laufbahn, Schaar', gaeaf-rawd `Winterszeit' = mir.gem-rad ds., mcymr. bed-rawd, cymr. bedd-rod, bret. bez-ret `Gräber' (cymr. bedd `grave'), in addition mir. rā(i)the `Jahreszeit, Vierteljahr' (*rōti̯o-);

    air. rethim `laufe' with compounds, Kaus. roithim `treibe an'; Verbaln. riuth m. `run, flow' (*r̥tu-); to air. do-riuth `accurrō' belongs cymr. tyred (*to-rete) `komm!'; air. fo-riuth, cymr. guo-redaf `succurrō', acymr. Perf. gua-raut = ir. fo-ráith (*upo-rōt-e);

    aisl. rǫðull m. `Strahlenkranz, sun' and as. radur, ags. rador, rodor m. `sky, heaven'; got. *raÞs `light', (Kompar. n. raÞizo) ags. ræd `quick, fast, behend', ahd. rado, rato adv. `quick, fast'; and. rath, afr. reth, ahd. rad `wheel', radelōt `with Räderchen versehen'; lit. rãtas m. `wheel, Kreis' (Plur. rātai `Karren, Wagen'), lett. rats `wheel' (Plur. rati `Wagen'), lit. ratẽlis m. `Rädchen' (compare ahd. radelōt and lat. rotula f. `Rädchen'), dvirãtis (mostly Pl. dvirãèiai) `zweirädriger Wagen';

maybe alb. geg. me rotullue `to circulate', illyr. GN Redon, Rodon

    lit. ritù, rìsti `roll' (*r̥t-); but gall. petor-ritum `vierrädriger Wagen' kann lat. Entwicklung from *petor-roto- sein.

References: WP. II 368, WH. II 443 f., Trautmann 238.

Page(s): 866


Root / lemma: reu-b- and reu-g-

Meaning: to vomit, retch

German meaning: `sich erbrechen, rülpsen, hervorbrechen', also `Wolke, Rauch'?

Material: 1. reub-: aisl. rjūpa f. `Schneehuhn', norw. rjupa, rype (compare lett. rubenis `Birkhuhn'?); ablaut. aisl. ropa `aufstoßen', rypta `sich erbrechen', ahd. roffezzen `aufstoßen' (*rupatjan), mhd. rofzen, nhd. reshaped to rülzen, rülpsen.

maybe alb. rjep, ropa (aor.) ` skin (an animal by blowing the air inside the skin)' similar to ahd. roffezzen `push open, belch'

    2. reug-: Npers. ā-rōɣ `das Rülpsen'; arm. orcam `erbreche mich, rülpse' (from *orucam, o- is Vorschlagsvokal); gr. ἐρεύγομαι `speie from, erbreche mich', ἐρυγγάνω `rülpse', ἐρυγή `Aufstoßen'; lat. ērūgō, -ere `ausrülpsen', ructō, -āre `rülpsen, ausspeien'; ags. rocettan `rülpsen', edroc `das Wiederkäuen', ahd. it-ruchen, mhd. iterücken `wiederkauen', iteroche f. `gullet bei Wiederkäuern', nisl. jōrtr n. `das Wiederkäuen' (about *ī-urtr from *ið-ruhtr-); aisl. jōrtra `wiederkäuen';

    lit. rjáugmi (riáugėju), raugiù, rúgiu `rülpse, have saures Aufstoßen', aksl. rygajǫ sę `rülpse', lit. rúgstu, rúgti `sauer become, ferment, seethe', ìšrūgos `wheys', rūgȳs `sauertöpfischer person', rúgžtas `sour', ráugas `sourdough', lett. atraugas f. Pl. `Aufstoßen', atraugties `aufstoßen', raudzēt `säuern', rūkts `bitter, herb', apr. ructan dadan `sour milk', raugus `rennet';

    as *reu-smen `Wiederkäuen; Gurgel' (see 873) auf the Lautgebärde *reu- beruhend;

    under einer Mittelbed. `hervorbrechen', or `exhalāre' reiht man (yet very doubtful) an: aisl. rjūka `smoke, whisk, hurry', ags. rēocan `smoke, steam, stink', mnd. rēken, rūken `smell', ahd. rouhhan `smoke, steam, smell', ahd. rouh, as. rōk, ags. rēc, aisl. reykr m. `smoke', mhd. ruch, mnd. röke m. `smell, odor', isl. norw. rok n. `Stieben, drive, impel, drift, propel, push, thrust, storm'; if alb. `cloud' from *rougi- originated is, as nhd. Rauch, is ein previously proto idg. *reug- `cloud, smoke' voraussetzbar.

References: WP. II 357, Wissmann Nom. Postverb. 128 f., Trautmann 244.

Page(s): 871-872


Root / lemma: reudh-

Meaning: red

German meaning: `rot'

Material: Old Indian rṓhita- = av. raoiδita- `red, reddish', rōhít- `rote mare, Weibchen einer Gazelle', rṓhi- m., rōhī f. `Gazelle'; Old Indian lōhá- `reddish', m. n. `rötliches Metall, Kupfer, iron' (formal = lat. rūfus, air. rūad, got. rauÞs, lit. raũdas, aksl. rudъ), rōdhra-, lōdhra- m. `symplocosracemosa, ein tree, from dessen Rinde ein rotes Pulver bereitet wird', loṣṭa- n. `Eisenrost' (*reudh-s-to-); rudhirá- `red, blutig', n. `blood' (*rudh-i-ro-, contaminated from *rudh-ro- and*rudh-i-); khotansak. rrusta- `red' (*reudh-s-to-);

    gr. ἐρεύθω `I röte' (= aisl. rjōða), ἔρευθος n. `Röte' (compare lat. rubor); ἐρυθρός `red' (= lat. ruber, aksl. *rъdrъ etc); ἐρυσί̄βη `Mehltau, robīgo' (ambiguous ending), ἐρυσί-πελας `Röteln' (*ἐρυσσι-, *rudh-s-);

    lat. rūbidus ` oxblood, indigo ' (with -do- Weiterbildung = Old Indian lōhá-);

    with dial. f: rūfus `lichtrot, fuchsrot', umbr. rofu `rubros'; with dial. ō from *ou lat. rōbus, rōbeus, rōbius `red', rōbīgo `Rost; Mehltau, Getreidebrand', also probably rōbus, rōbur `Hartholz, heartwood '; ruber, rubra, -um `red' (umbr. rufru `rubros'), lat. rubor `Röte', rubeō, -ēre `red sein' (: ahd. rotēn, aksl. rъděti), russus `fleischrot' (*rudh-so-); auf *rudhro- gehen die auson. Lw. rutilus `reddish', VN Rutuli (with Dissim.) back; compare lig. fundus Roudelius, illyr. Campī Raudii, apul. PN Rudiae (Szemerényi Arch. Ling. 4, 112 f.); about lat. raudus see under;

    air. rūad, cymr. etc rhudd `red', air. rucc(a)e `Schande' (*rud-ki̯ā), nasal. fo-roind `rötet'; gall. PN Roudus, Ande-roudus, GN Rudiobos (`roter Schläger'?), Rudianos; kelt. roudo- `red' and `strong';

    aisl. rjōðr, ags. rēod `red', aisl. rjōða `blutig make', ags. rēodan `red färben', got. (about ` shamefaced blush') ga-riuÞs `ehrbar', ga-riudei `Schamhaftigkeit'; ablaut. rauÞs, aisl. rauðr, ags. rēad, ahd. rōt `red', aisl. rauði m. `rotes Eisenerz', roðra f. `blood', roði m. `Röte', ryð n. and ryðr m. `Rost', roða `red sein or become', ahd. rotēn `blush', mhd. rot `red', ahd. rotamo, rosamo (*rudh-s-men-) `Röte' (moreover aisl. rosmu-fjǫll `rötliche Berge'), ags. rudu `Röte', rudig `reddish'; ā-ryderian `blush'; ags. rūst, ahd. as. rost `Rost' (*rū̆dh-s-to);

    lit. raũdas, raudónas `red', raudà `rote paint, color'; rùdas ` puce ' (lett. ruds `reddish'), ruduõ `Herbst', rudė́ti `rosten', rūdìs f. `Rost', rūdýnas, rūdynà, rūdỹnė `swamp, marsh with rötlichem, eisenhaltigem water, morass, puddle, slop', raũsvas (*roudh-s-u̯o-) `reddish', lett. rûsa (*rūdh-s-ā) `Rost', lit. rùsvas ` reddish brown ' (*rudh-s-u̯o-), ruslis `Bratrost', rusė́ti `gleam, burn', lett. rusla `kind of rotbrauner paint, color', lit. rùstas `bräunlich, purple, mauve' (*rudh-s-to-), lett. rusta `braune paint, color', rustēt `red färben';

    aksl. rudъ `red', ruda `Erz, Metall', rusъ (*roudh-s-o-) `reddish, blond'; *rъdrъ `red' in r.-ksl. rodrъ; rъděti sę `sich röten', rьžda `Rost', russ. rysyj `reddish blond' (*rūdh-s-o-, compare lett. rūsa);

    toch. A rätr-ārkyant `rotglänzend', rtär, В rätre `red' (*rutre-?).

    Old Indian ravi- m. `sun', arm. arev ds. kann only very doubtful as `the Rote' gedeutet become; lat. raudus, rōdus, rūdus `ein formloses Erzstück as Münze' is perhaps with Old Indian lōhá- `rotes Metall, Kupfer, iron' and aisl. rauði `rotes Eisenerz', aksl. ruda `Erz, Metall' to verbinden and gall. or illyr. Lw.;

maybe alb. rrotull `wheel, sun? ' [diminutive -l]

    also ahd. aruzzi, erizzi, aruz, as. arut `Erz, Erzstück', aisl. ortog (*arutia-taugo) `Drittel eines øre' are because of Schwankens the forms as borrows to betrachten; hence bestehtHommels derivation from sum. urud `Kupfer' letztlich to right, different Kretschmer Gl. 32, 6 ff.

References: WP. II 358 f., WH. II 420 f., 444 f., 455, 456, Trautmann 239.

Page(s): 872-873


Root / lemma: reugh-m(e)n-

Meaning: cream

German meaning: `Rahm'?

Material: Av. raoɣna- `Butter', mpers. npers. rōɣan `(ausgelassene) Butter'; aisl. rjūmi m. `Rahm', changing through ablaut ags. rēam, mnd. rōme, ahd. roum `Sahne', and mnd. rāme (for *rōme), from which nhd. Rahm, with ū schweiz. rūm ds.

References: WP. II 357 f.; s. also above S. 868.

Page(s): 873


Root / lemma: reu-1, rēu-, rū̆-

Meaning: to roar, murmur, etc. (expr.), onomatopoeic words

German meaning: Schallwurzel `brüllen, heisere Laute ausstoßen'; `brummen, murren'

Material: Old Indian rā́u-ti, ruváti, ravati `bellow, roar, lärmt, dröhnt', ráva-, ravátha- m. ` bellowing, braying, roar '; gr. ὠρύ̄ομαι `heule, brülle, stoße einen shriek from', ὠρῡδόν Adv. `with bellowing, braying, roar ' (prefix idg. ō); lat. rūmor `noise, shout, call, rumor'; răvus `hoarse', ravis f. ` hoarseness ', raucus `hoarse', raviō -īre `sich hoarse talk, speeak';

    ags. rēon `Wehklagen', mhd. rienen (*reunōn) `klagen, jammern'; aisl. rymja `roar, bellow, drone, grumble', rymr m. `grobe voice';

    ksl. revǫ, rjuti and aksl. rovǫ, ruti `roar, bellow', èech. řujě (old), říje f. `clamor of Hirsches, Brunstzeit', poln. ruja f. `rutting, heat(zeit)' (out of it lit. rujà, lett. ruoja f.); slav.*rovǫ besides *rjuti from *reu̯ō, *reuti, thereafter *rjovǫ > *rjevǫ;

    with the meaning of dumpfen, but heimlichen Murmelns: air. rūn ` mystery ', cymr. rhin ds.; got. rūna f. ` mystery ', as. rūna, mnd. rūne `heimliches Flüstern, h. Beratschlagen, Runenzeichen', ags. rūn ds., mhd. rūne `Flüstern, heimliches Beratschlagen', aisl. rȳna `vertraulich together talk, speak', ags. rūnian `flüstern, sich verschwören', ahd. rūnēn `flüstern, raunen', changing through ablaut ags. rēonian `flüstern' (as above rēon, mhd. rienen), norw. dial. rjona `babble'.

    extensions:

    a. reud-: Old Indian rudáti, róditi `heult, weint, jammert', av. raod- `weep, cry', Old Indian róda- m. `Klageton, Winseln, Weinen' (= ahd. rōz m., compare lit. raudà); gr. ῥύζω? (see above); lat. rū̆dō, -ere, -īvi `cry; roar, bellow'; ahd. riozan `weep, cry', rōz `das Weinen, Winseln', ags. rēotan `klagen, weep, cry', ablaut. aisl. rauta `roar, bellow'; bair. rotzen `weep, cry'; lit. ráudmi `I wehklage', raudóju, raudóti ds., lett. raûdât `weep, cry, beweinen', lit. apsi-rústu, preterit su-rúdau `mad, wicked, evil, sad become', rústas `mürrisch, fierce, grim'; slov. rydati `weep, cry', aèech. ruditi `afflict, sadden'.

    b. reuĝ-: gr. ἐρυγόντα `den brüllenden', ἐρύγμηλος `brüllend (vom bull)', ὀρυγμάδες θόρυβοι Hes. (also ὀρυμαγδός `großer din, fuss, noise' is from *ὀρυγμαδος reconverted), ὠρῡγή, ὤρῡγμα, ὠρῡγμός ` bellowing, braying, roar, Geheul' (to - see above); ῥύζειν ` growl, bark, bay' Hes.; lat. rūgiō, -īre `roar, bellow (vom Löwen))' (after mūgiō?); mir. rucht ` bellowing, braying, roar, Geheul' (*rug-tu-); ags. rēoc `wild', wherefore probably got. in-rauhtjan `ergrimmen'; (but aisl. raukn n. ` draft animal ' for rǫkn = vrǫkn); slav. *ruži̯eti `wiehert' in aksl. rъžetъ, rъzati, serb. ȑžê, ȑzati etc (lit. rūgóti `evil nehmen' is Lw. from russ. rugátь `vilify, scold' = aksl. rǫgati sę `spotten').

    c. reuk-: ags. rȳn `roar, bellow' (*rūhjan), mnd. rǖjan ds., ahd. rūhin ` bellowing, braying, roar ', besides ruhen (from *ruhjan), ahd. rohôn `rūgīre' (Wissmann Nom. postv. 87 f.); lett. rucu, rùkt `roar, roar, bellow', lit. rūkti `roar, bellow'; aksl. rykajǫ, rykati `rugire', russ. rykátь `roar, bellow'; besides aksl. rikajǫ `brülle' (from *rjūkajǫ), ablaut. slov. rûk m. `rutting, heat the Hirsche', rúkati `roar, bellow' etc

    d. ein cognate reus- seeks man in:

    nhd. rösten (after dem knisternden Ton?), ahd. rōst `Rostpfanne, Scheiterhaufen', ahd. rō̆sc, mhd. rosch, rösch `knisternd, brittle, resch', ags. ge-roscian `beim fire dry'?; in addition probably lit. rúzgiu `roar, foam, schnurre, grumble'.

References: WP. II 349 ff., WH. II 421, 447, 449, 450 f., Trautmann 241, 247, 248.

Page(s): 867-868


Root / lemma: reu-2, reu̯ǝ- : rū̆-

Meaning: to tear out, dig out, open, acquire, etc.

German meaning: `aufreißen, graben, aufwühlen; ausreißen; raffen'

Grammatical information: participle Perf. Pass. rū̆-tó-

Comments: to part, as it seems, still volleres ereu- (see under)

Material: Old Indian rav-, ru- ` shatter, shatter ' (rávat, rudhí, rāviṣam, rṓruvat; meaning probably from `her and in Stücke reißen'), participle rutá- ` shatter, zerschmettert' (= lat. dī-, ē-, in the case of-rŭtus); rṓman-, lṓman `hair' (compare under n. ir. rūaimneach and aisl. rǫgg `langes hair'); gr. ἐρῠσί-χθων `die Erde aufwühlend';

    lat. ruō in the meaning `aufreißen, wühlen, scratch', ē-, dī-, in the case of-ruō, -rŭtus (see above), rūta caesa `all, was auf einem Grundstück ausgegraben and gefällt is', rū̆trum `spade, hack, mattock, hoe, Kelle', rutellum `small shovel', rutābulum `shovel, Scharre';

    mir. rūam `spade, Grabscheit', rūamar `effossio'; nir. rūaimneach `langes hair';

    aisl. rȳja `den Schafen die Wolle ausreißen' (norw. f. `Winterwolle'), as. rūwi f. `rauhes fell, fur';

    aisl. rǫgg f., rǫggr m. `langes hair, long wool' (*rawwa-), schwed. rugg `zottiges hair' (*ruwwa-); out of it engl. rug;

    got. riurs `vergänglich' (riurjan `spoil'), aisl. rȳrr `gering, arm';

    presumably as. ahd. riomo `strap, leathery band, strap, Gürtel' (*`abgerissener Hautstreifen'), ags. rēoma, rēama ds., also `dünne Haut' (compare S. 873 *reugh-m(e)n- `Rahm'); mnd. mndl. rūn, rūne, schwäb. raun `Wallach, Gaul', because of ofries. han-rūne `Hahnrei' (actually `verschnittener rooster, cock') originally `equus castratus', mnl. runen, ruynen `cut, clip, kastrieren'; (nhd. runken); borrows lett. rūnīt `kastrieren', also finn. ruuna `Wallach', ruunata `kastrieren';

    lit. ráuju, ráuti `ausreißen, ausjäten', ravė́ti `jäten' (rãvas `Straßengraben', apr. rawys `ditch, trench, channel' Lw. from poln. rów `ditch, trench, channel'); lett. raûklis `Raufeisen'; aksl. ryjǫ, ryti `dig', rъvǫ `reiße from, jäte from', rylъ, rylo `Grabscheit, spade, hack, mattock, hoe', rovъ `ditch, trench, channel, pit, pothole', runo `Fließ';

    s. also above S. 338 about ereu-2, wherefore perhaps also lit. ùrvas m., also ùrva f. `cave'.

    extensions:

    a. reub-: `reissen' in lat. rubus `Brombeerstaude, Brombeere' (`*shrub, bush, woran man sich reißt'), rūbidus (panis i. e. `parum coctus') `raw, rauhrissig'; perhaps also rubēta ` toad '; mir. robb `animal'?; germ. *raup-, *rupp- (with intensification) in got. raupjan `pluck', ags. rīepan `ausplündern', ahd. roufen, mhd. roufen, reufen, raufen `pluck'; mengl. ryppen, engl. rip ` rend ', mhd. rupfen, ropfen `pluck', aisl. ruppa, rupla `losreißen', rupl n. `booty, Raub'.

    b. reud- `zerreissen'; rud-ló- `raw, wild'.

    lat. rūdus, -eris n. `zerbröckeltes Gestein, Geröll, Schutt'; also rudis `unbearbeitet, raw', rullus `coarse, bäurisch' (*rud-lo-); mir. rūad `Ruine', cymr. Pl. rhuddion `offal, Kleie' (*roud-); anord. reyta (*rautjan) `abreißen, tear, to pick to pieces, pluck', also mndl. rūten, holl. ruiten ` rend, plündern, rob', mnd. rüter, holl. ruiter (nhd. Reuter) `Plünderer, Räuber' (influence of mlat. ru(p)tarius); ein zugehöriges word for `Gerümpel' places mhd. riuze, alt-riuze `wer mitGerümpel handelt or es ausbessert' ahead; auf das durch Wässern and Faulenlassen of Flachses vorbereitete Ausziehen the Flachsfaser weisen aisl. rotinn `faul, verfault' (but ū-rotinn still `wer die Haare nicht verloren'), rot n. `Fäulnis; Ohnmacht', as. rotōn `from Rost verzehrt become', ags. rotian `faulen, wither, wilt'; mnd. rӧ̄ten `Flachs rösten', ahd. rōzzen `faulen', mhd. rōzzen and ræzen `faulen lassen', nhd. bair. rӧ̄ssen `Flachs faulen lassen' (reshaped to röstennach rösten `auf dem Rost braten'), mhd. rōz `mürbe';

    here Old Indian Rudrá- GN (*rud-lo-), pāli ludda- `cruel, savage' after W. Wüst Rudrá-.

    c. reudh- `reuten, roden'.

    Av. raoiδya- `arable to make';

    aisl. rjōða `reuten, räumen', mhd. rieten st. V. `ausrotten, destroy'; aisl. rjōðr n. `offene place in Walde', ahd. reod `gerodetes Land', nhd. dial. Ried ds., ahd. riuti ds., riuten (*riutjan) `reuten', ablaut. aisl. ruð n. `gerodete place in wood, forest', mnd. rot `das Roden', aisl. ryðja `roden; aufräumen, ausrotten', ags. ā-ryddan (engl. rid) `mug, rob, plündern'; mhd. roten, nhd. rotten; mnd. roden, out of it nhd. roden, afries. tō-rotha `ausrotten'.

    d. reuk- (partly probably also reug-, reugh-?) `pluck'.

    Old Indian luñcati `rauft, rupft, enthülst', luñcana- n. `das Ausrupfen, Ausraufen', rūkṣá- see under; gr. ὀρύσσω, att. -ττω `grabe, scharre', ὀρυχή, ὀρυγή `das ditch, trench, channel', ὄρυγμα n. `ditch, trench, channel', κατωρυχής `in the Erde vergraben'; lat. runcō, -āre `jäten, ausjäten', runncō, -ōnis `Reuthacke, Jäthacke'; gr. ῥυκάνη `Hobel' (the Vokalvorschlag getilgt perhaps after ῥῡσιάζω `reiße weg' to *u̯er-s-, -u-??), from which lat. runcina ds. (-n- durch Fernassimilation, unterstützt durch runcāre); ir. rucht `swine' (`Wühler' *ruktu-); mcymr. rhwgn `Reiben, Kerben' (*runk-no-? s. Loth RC. 42, 138 f.);

    with dem concept the (ausgerauften) Wollzotten and the with it verbundenen roughness (as S. 868 aisl. rǫgg): Old Indian rūkṣá- `rough', ahd. rūh, ags. rūh `rough, behaart; ungebildet'; as. rūgi, rūwi f. `rauhes fell, fur, grobe cover', mhd. riuhe, rūhe `Pelzwerk', nhd. Rauchwerk, ags. rȳhe, rūwa, rēowe `grobe Wolldecke', aisl. rȳ f. ds.;

    as `crack, furrow' perhaps here lit. raũka f., raũkas m. `wrinkle', raukiù, raũkti `in Falten pull, runzeln', runkù, rùkti `wrinkly become' and with g: lat. rūga `wrinkle, Falte'.

Maybe alb. (*rūga) rudha `wrinkle' common alb. -g > -dh phonetic mutation in the middle of the word.

    e. reup- `ausreißen, tear, break, rupture'; roupā- `hole, aperture ', rūpēis- `Fels'.

    Old Indian rōpayati `verursacht Reißen, bricht ab', rúpyati `hat Reißen in Leibe', *rōpa- n. `hole, cave' (= lit. raupaĩ, compare aisl. rauf f., serb. rȕpa);

    lat. rumpō, -ere, rūpī, ruptum `break, rupture', rūpēs `steile Felswand, Klippe, Felskluft, jäher abyss' (compare under lit. rupis `Fels', wherefore illyr. PN ΏΡύπες, Achaia, and in similar meaning nhd. Riepe `Schuttreuse' and die tirol. place names roupǝ, roufǝ, geschrieben Roppen, Rofen), rūpex, -icis `ruppiger uncouth, clumsy person, Rüpel' (compare lit. rupùs `rough, coarse');

    aisl. riūfa, ags. rēofan `break, rupture, tear' (ahd. ā-riub `atrox, dirus', actually `ungebrochen'); aisl. rauf f. `col, gap, hole', ags. rēaf n. `Raub, booty, dress, armament, armor' (*roupā = slav. *rupa `hole'), ahd. roub m. ds., to got. bi-raubōn, ahd. roubōn, as. rōƀōn `rob', aisl. raufa `durchbrechen, rob' and reyfa `durchbohren, tear', ags. bе-rīefan `mug, rob'; aisl. reyfi `gerupfte wool, rauhes fell, fur', mndl. roof `abgezogenes fell, fur'; geminated ostfries. rubben `scratch, scrape, rub, pluck', nd. rubbelig, rubberig ` uneven, rough', nhd. ruppig `struppig', engl. rubble, rubbish `Schutt, offal'; aisl. rūfinn `bristly, struppig, rauhhaarig'; nhd. rüffeln `scour, rub, clean, hart zusetzen';

    lit. rūpė́ti `sich kümmern', rūpùs `besorgt' (to russ. rupá ` care, ruefulness'), raupýti and (idg. ablaut ou : ōu) ruõpti `dig, hollow out', rùpas `rough, holperig', rupùs `rough, coarse', rupìs `Fels', ostlit. raupaĩ Pl. ` measles, pox' ('Rauhigkeit in the Haut'), raupsaĩ ` leprosy '; also lit. rupužė̃, raupežė̃ ` toad ' (from the roughness the Haut), compare also lett. raupa `Gänsehaut' (`Schauder'); serb. rȕpa `hole, pit, pothole' (*roupā), poln. rupić się `sich kümmern', ablaut. rypać `scindere, friare'.

    f. reus-: aisl. reyrr m. `Steinhaufen', rūst f. `Trummer, zerfallene wall' (see above S. 686 about Old Indian loṣṭá- m. n.); ahd. riostar `Pflugsterz', ags. rēost `ein Teil of Pfluges', nhd. dial. riester `rag zum Schuhflicken'; dän. ros `Schnitzel, offal', norw. dial. ros, rys `Fischschuppe', rus `dünne bowl', rosa `ritzen, die Haut aufscheuern, sich lösen', isl. rosm n. `offal', rusl n. `offal', as. ruslos m. Pl. `Speckseite', ags. rysel m. bacon, fat, under likewise; ndl. rul `locker and dry, e.g. vom sand, rough' (*ruzlá-); aisl. ryskja ` rend, pluck', norw. rusk `offal, dust, powder' (also mnd. rūsch ` intestines, entrails ', bair. geräusch? still insecure mhd. roesche, nhd. dial. rösch `hard and light frail, breakable under likewise'); with germ. Wurzelvariation aisl. raska `in Unordnung bringen'; with -p- probably ahd. gi-rūspit gl. to inhorruit (aper), and (as `in Halse scratch, scrape') nhd. räuspern, mhd. riuspern, riuspeln, rūspern, compare lat. rūspor, -āri `suchen', actually `auufreißend, durchwühlend, whereupon forschend', as ital. ruspare `scratch (from the Henne)', ruspo `rough, neugemünzt', rospo ` toad ' show;

    lit. rausiù, raũsti `scratch, wühlen', rūsỹs, rúsas `pit, pothole for die Winterkartoffeln', pelen-rũsis, -rūsà `Aschenbrödel', rùsinti `schüren', lett. raust `schüren, wühlen', raustīt `pull, rend ', rūsa `aufgehäufter Schutt'; about aksl. rušiti `umstürzen', *ruchъ `movement', see above S. 332.

References: WP. II 351 ff., WH. II 445 f., 447 f., 451 ff., Trautmann 240, 241, 247, Wissmann Nom. Postverb. 10, 130, 176 f.

Page(s): 868-871


Root / lemma: reu-3, reu-s-

German meaning: `eilen'

See also: see above S. 331 f. (er-3), wherefore still mir. rūaimm `onrush', bret. rumm `Schaar' (reu-smen).

Page(s): 871


Root / lemma: reu-4

German meaning: `nachforschen'

See also: see above S. 337 (ereu-).

Page(s): 871


Root / lemma: reu-smen-

Meaning: chewing; throat

German meaning: `Wiederkäuen; Kehle, Gurgel'

Material: Old Indian rōmantha- m. `Wiederkäuen'; wakhi ramöt (*raumąϑa-) ds.; kati žëmɛtr (*romantra-) ds.;

    lat. rūmen, -inis `throat, Gurgel, gullet', rūma, rūmis, -is ds. (können m from mn haben, as:) rūmāre besides rūmināre `wiederkauen'; kymr. rhumen `paunch, udder'; compare above S. 872.

References: WP. II 360 f., Loth RC. 43, 146; Frisk Suffixales-th- 14 f.

Page(s): 873


Root / lemma: reus-

Meaning: elm

German meaning: `Rüster'?

Material: Ir. rúaimm `betula alnus, alnus glutinosa' (*reus-men);

    to ahd. rust, mhd. nhd. Rüster?

References: WP. II 361.

Page(s): 873


Root / lemma: reuto-, routo-, rut-

Meaning: stomach, intestines (of an animal)

German meaning: `Tiermagen, Eingeweide'

Material: Mpers. rōt ` intestines, entrails of Rindes', npers. rūda, Pl. rūdag-ānī `Gedärme, intestines, entrails ' (*reuto-ko-); jav. uruϑwarǝ, -wan- n. (*rut-u̯ar-, -u̯an-) ` intestines, entrails, belly';

    ags. rēada `Tiermagen', engl. read `Labmagen' (*routo-), andl. roode `Blättermagen'; schwed. dial. rudda f. `Labmagen' (*ruddōn-).

References: Lidén KZ. 61, 14 f.

Page(s): 873-874


Root / lemma: reu̯ǝ- : rū-

Meaning: to open; wide

German meaning: `öffnen'

Material: Av. ravah- n. `Raum, Weite', ravas-èarāt- `was sich in Freien bewegt';

    lat. rūs, rūris `land (in contrast to town, city), estate' (*reu̯os); mir. róe, rói f. `ebenes field' (because of Eigennamens Cú Rói, welcher older Cú Raui lautet, from *rōu̯i̯ā);

    germ. rū-ma- in got. rūms `geräumig, wide', rūm n. `Raum', aisl. rūmr `geräumig', rūm n. `Raum, place', as. rūm m. `Raum', afries. ags. rūm `geräumig', m. `Raum, Zeitraum, Gelegenheit', ahd. mhd. rûm m. `Raum, aperture, freie Räumlichkeit', mhd. rūm `geräumig'; ahd.rūmi, mhd. rūme `geräumig, wide, afar'; abgel. verb germ. *rūmian: aisl. rȳma `geräumig make' etc;

    aksl. ravьnъ from *orvьnъ `eben'; russ. roves-nyk `Altersgenosse'; apr. arwis `true, gewiß';

    toch. AB ru- `öffnen'.

References: WP. II 356 f., WH. II 454, Trautmann 14.

Page(s): 874


Root / lemma: rezg-

Meaning: to plait, wind

German meaning: `flechten, winden'

Material: Old Indian rájju- f. `rope, cable'; lat. restis ds. (*rezgtis) = alit. rekstis `basket'; ags. resc(e), risc(e), mnd. risch ` bulrush'; norw. rusk m. ryskje n. `Schmiele', ags. rysc, rysce f. ` bulrush'; mnd. rusch `reed, bulrush', mhd. rusch(e) f. ` bulrush'; lit. rezgù, rèksti `flax, wattle, braid, stricken, bind, schnüren', lett. režǵēt `flax, wattle, braid', režǵis `Flechtwerk'; abulg. rozga `rod, twig, branch', durch sekundäre Beeinflussung of Präfixes raz-: russ.-ksl. razga.

References: WP. II 374, WH. II 431, Trautmann 245.

Page(s): 874


Root / lemma: rēd-1

Meaning: to excite; joyful

German meaning: `aufmuntern, froh'

Comments: only germ. and balto-slavisch

Material: Ags. rōt `freudig, blithe, glad, good', ā-rētan `aufmuntern'; aisl. rö̥́task `heiter become', mál-rǿtinn `redeliebend'; lit. rõds `gern, willing'; aksl. radъ `libens', skr. rȁd, èech. rád ds.

References: WP. II 369, Trautmann 235.

Page(s): 853


Root / lemma: rēd-2 : rōd- : rǝd-

Meaning: to shuffle, scrape, scratch

German meaning: `scharren, schaben, kratzen, nagen'

Material: Lat. rōdō `nage, benage' and rādō `scharre, schabe, scratch' (from *radzd(h)ō s. cymr. rhathu), wherefore rāstrum `hack, mattock, hoe, Karst', rādula `Schabeisen', rāllum `Pflugschar', rāmentum `Abgang, chip, splinter, splinter' and rōstrum `(Nagewerkzeug) bill, beak, neb, snout, Rüssel, Schiffsschnabel'; cymr. rhathu `raspeln, smooth, ebnen', rhathell `Raspel', rhath `Ebene, surface, plain, area', bret. raza `raser'; brit.rath- and lat. rādō are under *răzdō (from *radzd(h)ō, d(h)-present) compatible;

    ahd. rāzi `sharp from taste, wild', mhd. rāze rǣze ds. prove die ē-grade *rēd-; in addition germ. *rattō `Ratte' (= Nager): as. ratta, ags. rætt m., mhd. ratze, ratz etc; in nhd. Dialekten kommt Ratz in the meaning `marten, polecat, caterpillar, inchworm' vor; ahd. rato, radda, ratta.

References: WP. II 369, WH. II 415, 439 f.

Page(s): 854


Root / lemma: rēi-1 : rī-

German meaning: `zählen, ordnen'

Comments: extended rēi-dh-.

See also: see above S. 60 (ar-).

Page(s): 860


Root / lemma: rēi-2, rōi-

German meaning: `Nuß'

References: (see Trautmann 241 f.)

See also: see above S. 61 (ar-3).

Page(s): 860


Root / lemma: rēito-, rēiti-

Meaning: scapula; shoulder (of animals)

German meaning: `Bug, Schulter von Tieren'

Material: Arm. eri, Gen. ervoy `Bug, shoulder from animals'; lit. ríetas m. `thigh, Lende', lett. rieta f. `leg'; ksl. ritь, èech. řít́ `podex'.

References: Trautmann 242, Lidén Mél. Pedersen 88 f.

Page(s): 863


Root / lemma: rē̆k-2

Meaning: to arrange, prepare

German meaning: `anordnen'

Material: Old Indian racayati `verfertigt, bildet', racana- n. `Ordnen, Betreiben'; got. rahnjan `reckon'; ragin n. `Rat, decision', aisl. regin, Pl. rǫgn `die ratschlagenden Mächte, gods', as. ragino giscapu `Beschlüsse the göttlichen Mächte', ahd. regin- in Eigennamen; aksl. rokъ m. `bestimmte time, Ziel', rekǫ, rešti `say', raknǫti, raèiti `wollen' etc; toch. A rake, В reki, Pl. rekauna `word';

    with ē: got. ga-rēhsns f. ` determination, Ratschluß'; aksl. rěèь f. `accusatio';

    quite doubtful Zusammengehörigkeit with aisl. rān n. `Raub' (*rahna-), rǣna `rob' (*rahnjan), ahd. bi-rahanen `erbeuten'; primary meaning wäre `Raub-Anschlag'?

References: WP. II 362, Trautmann 243.

Page(s): 863


Root / lemma: rē-1, rǝ- extended rē-dh- etc

German meaning: `berechnen, zählen', `bereit machen, überlegen'

See also: see above S. 59 f. (ar-).  

Page(s): 853


Root / lemma: rē̆-2 extended rē-dh-

German meaning: `zertrennen'

See also: see above S. 332 f. (er-).  

Page(s): 853


Root / lemma: rē-3

German meaning: `rudern'

See also: see above S. 338 (erǝ-).  

Page(s): 853


Root / lemma: rē-4

German meaning: `ruhen'

See also: see above S. 338 f. (erǝ-)

Page(s): 853


Root / lemma: rē-5

Meaning: dark

German meaning: `dunkel'

Material: Old Indian rāmá- ` swart, black'; n. ` darkness, night'; rāmī f. `night'; mhd. rām, rōm m. `smut, smut'; nisl. rāma-legr `dirty, filthy'; ahd. rāmac, mhd. rāmec, rāmig `dirty, filthy, rußig', ags. rōmig `rußig', ne. room `scurf on the head, dandruff';

    Old Indian rātrī `night' better to lat. lateō etc, above S. 651 nachzutragen.

    With -u̯o-formants: lat. rāvus `gray, graugelb'.

Page(s): 853


Root / lemma: rē-6

Meaning: to cry

German meaning: `schreien'

See also: s. rei-3.

Page(s): 853


Root / lemma: rēp-1 (rep-?)

Meaning: to crawl, sneak

German meaning: `kriechen, schleichen'

Material: Lat. rēpō, -ere `kriechen, slink'; ahd. rebo, reba, repa, mhd. rebe `Schlingschößling'; ablaut. mnd. wīn-rāve `Weinrebe';

    lit. rėplióti `kriechen', ablaut. roplóti ds., lett. rãpât, rãpt ds., apr. rīpaiti `folget'; barely in addition wruss. rapuxa, poln. ropucha ` toad '.

References: WP. II 370, WH. II 430, Trautmann 246, Kluge-Goetze16 604.

Page(s): 865


Root / lemma: rēp-2, rǝp-

Meaning: pole; beam

German meaning: `Pfahl, Balken'

Material: Ahd. rā̆vo `Sparren', aisl. rāfr, rǣfr m., rāf n. `Sparrendach'; aisl. raptr m. `stick, Sparren' (vandal. PN Raptus), ags. ræfter ds., mnd. rafter, rachter `small balk, beam, lath'; lit. rė́plinti `aufrichten, hinstellen'; aksl. rěpьjь, rěpijь `picket, pole', rěpьje `τρίβολος'.

References: WP. II 370.

Page(s): 866


Root / lemma: rēs-, rōs-

German meaning: `fließen'

See also: see above S. 336 f. (ere-s-2).

Page(s): 866


Root / lemma: rēt-, rōt-, rǝt-

Meaning: pole; trunk

German meaning: `Stange, stem, Balkengefüge'

Material: Ahd. ruota, aisl. rōða `rod, shaft, pole', as. rōda `(picket, pole)kreuz', ags. rōd ds. and ksl. ratište, ratovište `Lanzenschaft'; perhaps in addition lat. rētae `from dem bank, border, shore of Flusses hervorragende Bäume', rētāre `den river from solchen clean' and rătis `Floß'.

References: WP. II 368, WH. II 420, 431.

Page(s): 866


Root / lemma: roi-no-

German meaning: `Weg, Rain, Hügel'

See also: see under rei-.

Page(s): 874


Root / lemma: rughi̯o-

German meaning: `Roggen'

See also: see under u̯rughi̯o-.

Page(s): 874


Root / lemma: ruk(k)-, rouk(k)-

Meaning: a kind of cloth

German meaning: `Gespinst'

Comments: only kelt. and germ.

Material: Air. rucht (*ruktu-) `tunica'; mcymr. rhuch(en) `mantle' (*roukkā); got. *rukka (ital. rocca), ahd. rocko `Rocken'; aisl. rokkr `Rock' derives from ags. as. rocc `Rock'.

References: WP. II 374, Loth RC. 42, 62 f.

Page(s): 874


Root / lemma: r̥ksā

Meaning: tether

German meaning: `Köte, Fessel (bei Huftieren)'?

Material: Old Indian r̥kṣálā, r̥cchárā f. `manacle' perhaps to lit. rė́ša `Kötengelenk of Pferdes'; different about Old Indian r̥kṣálā above S. 673.

References: WP. II 322.

Page(s): 875


Root / lemma: ŕ̥k̂Þo-s

Meaning: bear

German meaning: `Bär'

Comments: (or r̥k̂-s-o-s besides r̥k̂-to-s?)

Material: Old Indian ŕ̥kṣa- m. `bear' (in addition ein neues fem. r̥k̂ṣī `Bärin') = jav. arša-, osset. ars, arm. arj (beeinflußt from arjn `dunkelbraun'), alb. ari, gr. ἄρκτος, newer ἄρκος, in addition (?) the VN ᾽Αρκάδες,

Note:

Alb. ariu `bear' seems to have derived from alb. harusha `she-bear' identical to Old Indian ŕ̥kṣa- m. `bear'. Alb. proves that she-bear is older cognate then bear. The old laryngeal has been preserved in alb. while the feminine ending -a attested in all other IE tongues corresponds only to the primordial alb. cognate. Clearly alb. has saved the matriarchal aspect of the huntress godess while Sanskrit is the zero grade of a proto alb. cognate.

mir. art, cymr. arth `bear', gall. Deae Artioni `Bärengöttin', lat. ursus `bear', perhaps hitt. ḫartagga- name eines Raubtiers; aquitan. PN Harsus, bask. hartz `bear' are kelt. Lw.; npers. xirs `bear' soll auf iran. *r̥sa- = idg. r̥k̂o- weisen, worauf also osset. ars go back could.

References: WP. II 322, WH. II 842, Specht KZ 66, 26 f., Idg. Dekl. 239 f., the den Bären as `Zerstörer, Schädiger' interprets, to Old Indian rákṣas- n. ` destruction ', av. raš- `beschädigen' (see 864); compare also Frisk Gr. et. Wb. 141 f.

Page(s): 875


Root / lemma: saip-

Meaning: stall, fence

German meaning: `Umfriedung from Dickicht, Hürde'?

Material: Gr. αἱμός (Aisch.) ` thicket ' (*saip-mo-?), αἱμασία `fence, wall' (*saip-mn̥tiā́?);

    lat. saepēs, -is `fence, paddock ', saepiō, -īre `umzäunen', praesaepēs, prae-saepia `crib, Stall', saepe `often' (neuter eines Adj. *saepis `gedrängt').

References: WP. II 445 f., WH. II 461 f.

Page(s): 878


 

Root / lemma: sak-

Meaning: to sanctify; to make a treaty

German meaning: `heiligen, einen Vertrag machen'?

Material: Lat. sacer `geweiht, holy' (besides sācris); fal. sacru(m), osk. σακορο `sacra' or `sacrum', sakrim (Akk.), sakrid (Abl.), sakarater `sacratur', sacrasias `*sacrariae', sakaraklúm `sacellum', saka(ra)hiter `sanciātur', umbr. sakra `sacras', Adverb sakre; päl. sacaracirix `*sacratrix, sacerdos'; further osk. sakrvist `sacra est'; altes compound is lat. sacerdōs, -dōtis `priest'(also f.) from *săcro-dhō-t-s to root dhē-;

    moreover Sancus, -ī and -ūs, name einer umbr.-sabin. divinity; vom u-stem derived istSanquālis `zum Sancus gehörig'; umbr. Sanśi `Sancium', dat. Sansie; from *sanko- is sanciō, -īre `durch religiöse Weihe unverletzlich machen, heiligen; ein law bestätigen' derived, further sanctus `geheiligt', umbr. sahta, sahata `sanctam', osk. saahtúm `sanctum', päl. sato `sanctum'; lat. sagmen `the heiligende, auf the Burg gepflückte Grasbüschel';

    hitt. šaklai- ` custom, Ritus'.

References: WP. II 448, WH. II 459 f., 464, 474.

Page(s): 878


Root / lemma: sal-2

Meaning: dirty grey; salt, saliva, willow

German meaning: `schmutziggrau'

Comments: also (after the paint, color) zur Bezeichnung of Salzes (see sal-1), the Grauweide and of Speichels

Note:

From a zero grade of Root / lemma: angʷ(h)i- : `snake, worm' derived illyr. *nsala `eel' [later alb. (*encheleae > *ensala) ngjalë `eel'], then from the intermediary illyr. root *nsala `eel' derived Root / lemma: sal- : `salt; salty water' and Root / lemma: sal-2 : `dirty grey; salt, saliva, willow'.

Also from illyr. PN Salapia (Apulia) to FlN *Sal-apa `salty water' [sala `salt' + *apa `water'] derived an intermediary root *salpa- `sea snake' then Root / lemma: serp- : `to crawl, snake'.

Material: A. Aind. lengthened grade sāra-, sāla- `gray' = ags. sōl `dirty, filthy, dark', ndd. saul ds.; air sal and sa(i)le f. `smut', salach `dirty, filthy' = abret. haloc, cymr. halog ds.; cymr. sal `ärmlich, krank' is frz. Lw.;

    B. sal-u̯o- in aisl. splr `dirty, filthy' sǫl n. `a kind of Alge'; ahd. salo `cloudy, schmutziggrau', ags. salu ds., ndl. zaluw `dunkelgelb'; mhd. sal, Gen. salwes `smut'; cymr. salw `ärmlich, niedrig' (das s- from sal, see above), acorn. halou `stercora'; russ.-ksl. slavo-oèije `Blauäugigkeit', russ. solovój `isabellenfarben'.

    C. Lat. salīva f. `saliva', out of it air. saile, cymr. haliw ds.

    D. Lat. salix ` a willow-tree, willow, sallow' = mir. sail, Gen. sa(i)lech, cymr. etc helyg-en ds.; abrit. PN Salico-dūnon, gall. PN Salicilla; ahd. sal(a)ha, mhd. salhe, nhd. Salweide; ags. sealh m., aisl. selja ` a willow-tree, willow, sallow' (*salhjōn).

Maybe alb. (*salicus) shelgu `willow' not from lat salix.

References: WP. II 453 f., WH. II 468 f., Trautmann 249; Thieme, as above.

Page(s): 879


Root / lemma: sal-

Meaning: salt; salty water

German meaning: `Salz, Seesalz'

Grammatical information: Nom. sal, sal-d-, sal-i, sal-u; Gen. sal-n-és

Comments:

From a zero grade of Root / lemma: angʷ(h)i- : `snake, worm' derived illyr. *nsala `eel' [later alb. (*encheleae > *ensala) ngjalë `eel'], then from the intermediary illyr. root *nsala `eel' derived Root / lemma: sal- : `salt; salty water' and Root / lemma: sal-2 : `dirty grey; salt, saliva, willow'.

Also from illyr. PN Salapia (Apulia) to FlN *Sal-apa `salty water' [sala `salt' + *apa `water'] derived an intermediary root *salpa- `sea snake' then Root / lemma: serp- : `to crawl, snake'.

Material: Old Indian sal-ilá- n. `sea, Meeresflut' (`*das Salzige'), sal-ilá- `salzig'; arm. `salt' (i-stem), aɫt (i-stem) `Salzlager, salt', aɫi `salzig' (out of it is the river name ῝Αλυς gräzisiert);

    gr. ἅλς, Gen. ἁλός m. `salt', f. `Salzflut, sea', Dat. Pl. ἅλασι; Pl. ἅλες also `Witz', as lat. salēs, ἅλιος `marinus', ἀλιεύς `Seemann, Fischer'; ἁλυκός `jünger', ἁλικός `salzig'; stem ἁλι- stets in compound ἁλι-πόρφυρος, ἁλι-μυρήεις (ἁλος-ύδνη invokes den Gen. ἁλός); ἅλμη ` sea waters, salinity, sharpness' (therefrom ἁλμυρός `salty, bitter, sharp'); alb. ngjelbëtë, ngjelmëtë `salty', njelm `be salty' (-mo- as in gr. ἅλμη);

Note:

Illyr. PN Salapia (Apulia) to FlN *Sal-apa `salty water' [sala `salt' + *apa `water'] : alb. (*salma) ngjelbëtë, ngjelmëtë `salty' [common alb. p- > mp- > m- phonetic mutation] solidified also in gr. ἅλμη ` sea waters, salinity, sharpness'.

Maybe alb. zero grade (*nsala < ansala) ngjalë 'eel, sea snake' : alb. (*sarpa-) gjarpën 'snake' [common alb. -s- > -gj- phonetic mutation].

    illyr. PN Salapia (Apulia) to FlN *Sal-apa; lat. sāl, sălis m., altlat. also Nom. sale n. `salt'; umbr. salu `salem', perhaps also lat. insula as ` ἐν ἁλὶ οὖσα' (compare gr. ἔναλος `in Meere befindlich');

maybe alb. (*insula) ishull 'island'

    air. salann, cymr. halen, acorn. haloin, bret. c'hoalenn, holen (*salei-no-) `salt'; auf *salī-mo- leads probably cymr. heli `sea'; kelt. FlN Sala `Saale', compare Saalach, Nfl. the Salzach; lett. sā̀ls (*sālis); apr. sal is poln. Lw.; lit. sālti `sweet become, sauer become', salià `Süßigkeit'; lett. sālīms, lit. žem. sólymas m. `Salzlake' (= cymr. heli); aksl. solь f. `salt' (*sali-); slav. *solnъ in aksl. slanъ `salzig'; apr. saltan n. `bacon', slav. *soltь f. in russ. solotь `swamp, marsh', aksl. slatina `ἅλμη', serb. slativa `Salzquelle', èech. slatina `moor, fen' etc; toch. A sāle, В sālyiye `salt'.

    with dem d- of idg. Nom. Sg. n. *sal-d-: illyr. PN Saldae (Pannonien), thrak. PN Salsovia (*sal-d-t-ou̯-); got. aisl. as. salt, ags. sealt, ahd. salz `salt'; Adjekt. aisl. saltr, ags. sealt, mhd. salzec, nhd. salzig; with zero grade as. sultia, ahd. sulza (*sultja) `Salwasser, Sülzwurst', nhd. Sülze; norw. sylt f. `überschwemmter Meeresstrand' (but mhd. sol, sul, nhd. Sole `salzhaltiges Wasser' are slav. Lwe.); ags. sealtan, ahd. salzan `salzen' (otherwise schwaches V. ags. sieltan, aisl. salta); lat. sallō, -ere `salzen', participle salsus (*sald-to-) perhaps with präs.-d-suffix; also bsl. *saldu- `süss' (`*gesalzen, *wohlschmeckend') could after einem verb shaped sein: lit. saldùs, lett. salds, slav. *soldъk in aksl. sladъkъ, poln. sɫodki; without -d-: lit. sąlù, sálti `süss become', ostlit. į̃salas, lett. ìesals m. `Malz'; the u-stem sal-u- ergibt sich besides from bsl. *saldu- also from gr. ἁλυκός `salzig'.

Maybe Seleiitani Illyr. TN, also alb. (*shile) shije `taste, salty taste', sillë `dinner', gjellë `food', gjallesë `creature to be eaten', gjallë `alive, fresh meat' [common alb. s- > gj- shift].

References: WP. II 452 f., WH. II 465 f., Trautmann 249, Thieme, The Heimat the idg. Gemeinsprache 20, 27f.;

See also: belongs to sal-2.

Page(s): 878-879


Root / lemma: sap-, sab-

Meaning: to taste, to perceive

German meaning: `schmecken, wahrnehmen'

Material: 1. sap-:

    av. višāpa (*viš-sāpa) `dessen Säfte poison are'; arm. ham (*săpmo-) `juice, sap, taste';

    lat. sapiō, -ere `schmecken, Geschmack haben; after etwas smell; wise sein, sensible sein'; sapa f. `juice, sap', sapor `taste, Leckerei', nesapius, nesapus `ignorans'; osk. sipus `sciens' (*sēpu̯ōs), volsk. sepu `sciente' are neologisms after capio: cēpi; osk. innovation seems lat.sibus `sly, cunning'; mhd. be-seben st. V. `wahrnehmen', aisl. sefi `sense, mind', as. seƀo, ags. sefa dss.; to lat. sapa `juice, sap' stellt sich germ. *safan- `juice, sap (the Baume)': aisl. safi `Baumsaft', norw.sevja ds., sabba `in Schlamm wade', mnd. sabben `geifern', sabbelen `sudeln'.

    2. sab-:

maybe alb. (*sap-), shap 'alum'.

    Illyr. sabaium `beer', Sab- in vielen FlN Italiens, Sabātis (Campanien), Vada Sabatia (Ligurien) etc; kelt. (ven.?) FlN Sabis (Belgien);

    ags. sæp n. `juice, sap, broth', mnd. sap(p), ahd. saf, sapf, nhd. Saft.

 

Related to Sabath in Jewish tradition? And to number septa ‘seven’ as the day of Sabath? Sabine ‘Phoenicians in Italy?

References: WP. II 450 f., WH. II 476 f., Pokorny Urillyr. 79, 97, 117.

Page(s): 880


Root / lemma: sasi̯o-

Meaning: a kind of cereal

German meaning: `Feldfrucht'

Material: Old Indian sasyá- n. `Feldfrucht'; jav. hahya- ` corn, grain '; gall. Akk. (s)asiam `Roggen' (`secale Taurini sub Alpibus asiam vocant' Plin. H. N.); cymr. haidd `hordeum', bret. heiz `orge'; compare also ved. sasá- `nourishment, food, dish, food, herb, grass, sown field '.

References: WP. II 454, WH. I 72.

Page(s): 880


Root / lemma: saus-, sus-

Meaning: dry

German meaning: `trocken, dürr'

Comments:

The real root [an onomatopoeic word] must have been sau-, su- `dry' which was suffixed either with common -ska or -tra, -dra, -dor, -ter in PIE.

Material: Old Indian śúṣyati ` dries, wilts ', thereafter śoṣa- m. (assimil. from *soṣa-) `the drying up', also Adj. ` made dry '; av. haos- ` dry up, become dry ', aŋhao-šǝmna- `not drying '; Old Indian śúṣka- (from *suṣka-), av. huška- `dry';

    gr. αὖος (Hom.), αὗος (att.) `arid, dry', αὐσταλέος ` scrubby, dirty, filthy', αὐστηρός ` harsh, austere '; Denomin. αὐαίνω, αὑαίνω `make dry, desiccate ', αὕω `trockne, desiccate '; doubtful gr. αὐχμός m. ` aridity, Trockenheit, smut', whether from *sau-k-smo- from einer Wurzelvariante *sau-k- besides *sau-s-, to Old Indian sū́kṣma- `fine, thin, schmal'?

    alb. thanj (*sausni̯ō) ` dry ';

Note:

Common alb. s > th phonetic mutation

     lat. sūdus `dry, cheerful' (*suz-do-), sūdum ` cloudless, bright, clear, serene '; different M. Mayrhofer KZ. 73, 117;

Note:

This is erroneous etymology. The real root [an onomatopoeic word] must have been sau-, su- `dry' which was suffixed either with common -ska or -tra, -dra, -dor, -ter in PIE. Latin presserved the rudeiment of the -dor suffix, otherwise lat. cognate evolved according to illyr.-alb. phonetic mutation (*sausni̯ō > saunus) sūdus `dry' [common alb. n > nd phonetic shift]

    ags. sēar, mnd. sōr `dry', norw. søyr ds., ahd. sōrēn ` wilt';

    lit. saũsas `dry', saũsti `dry become', saũsinti `dry make', sùsti `räudig become', sùskis ` leprosy, Krätze' (: Old Indian śúṣka-); lett. sust `dry become'; aksl. suchъ `dry', sušiti `dry make', sъchnǫti `dry become'.

Clearly from an extended Root / lemma: saus-, sus- : (dry) derived Root / lemma: sā́u̯el-, sāu̯ol-, suu̯él-, su̯el-, sūl- : (sun).

References: WP. II 447, WH. II 624, Trautmann 250 f., Frisk 188 f., 192 f.

Page(s): 880-881


Root / lemma: sāg-

Meaning: to track, trail; to feel, smell

German meaning: `(witternd) nachspüren'

Grammatical information: (: *sǝg-) bildet athemat. Wurzelpräsens

Comments: altes Jägerwort

Material: Gr. ἡγέομαι, dor. ̄γέομαι `gehe voran, lead, guide', nachhom. `glaube, meine', ἡγεμών, ἡγήτωρ `Anführer';

    lat. sāgiō, -īre `acute sentire, spüren, ahnen', sāgus `wahrsagend, prophetisch, zauberisch', sāga `Wahrsagerin' (but sagana `Zauberin' from gr. *σαγάνη); sāgāx, -ācis `sharp, witternd;sharp witted, shrewd';

    air. saigim `gehe einer thing after, search, seek' (zur 3. Pl. segait s. Pedersen KG. II 606 ff.), cymr. haeddu `verdienen', cy-r-haedd `erreichen' and likewise; here probably die ir. Denominativa auf -aigim (cymr. -haaf); air. sār m. `Kränkung, iniuria' (*sag-ro-), Verbalnomen sārugud (*sagro-sagitus): mcymr. sayrhaed f., ncymr. sarhad `insult' (ir. Lw.);

    got. sōkjan (= lat. sāgiō) `suchen, disputieren', aisl. sø̄kja `suchen, assail ', ags. sǣcan ds., ahd. suohhen `suchen', got. sōkns `Untersuchung, Streitfrage', ags. sōcn f. `Untersuchung, attack, Gerichtsbarkeit'; ablaut. got. sakan, sōk `sich quarrel, quarrel, squabble', gasakan `threaten, punish, curse, überführen', ahd. (etc) sahhan `rebuke, reproach, scold, chide, vor Gericht streiten', aisl.sǫk `Rechtssache, Klage, thing, Ursache', ags. sacu f. `Rechtshandel, Verfolgung, fight', ahd. sahha `fight, Gerichtshandel, thing' etc;

Maybe truncated alb. geg. (*sahhan) gjanë, gja `thing, affair' [common alb. shift s- > gj-]

Note: [conservative definitive forms versus indefinite forms (alb. phonetic trait)]

    aisl. saka `klagen, harm', sātt, sǣtt f., (*sahti-) ` comparison, peace', (> ags. seht ds.), sāttr (*sahta-R) `versöhnt'; got. in-sahts f. `Aussage', ags. in-siht f. ds. (*in-sak-ti);

    hitt. šak(k)-, šek(k)- `aware, skillful '.

Maybe alb. (*saku) gjahu `hunt, prey' [common alb. shift s- > gj-] also [common alb. -k- > -h- shift].

Note: [conservative definitive forms versus indefinite forms (alb. phonetic trait)]

It seems that through alb. intermediary from Root / lemma: sāg- : (to track, trail; to feel, smell) derived Root / lemma: gʷhen-2(ǝ)- : (to hit)

  

References: WP. II 449, WH. II 464 f., Wissmann nouns postverb. 75 f., 84, Loth RC. 41, 222 ff.

Page(s): 876-877


Root / lemma: sāi-

Meaning: pain, illness, injure, hurt, damage, disable

Material: With formants -mo-: gr. *αἱμωδός (umgebidet from *αἱμ-ώδων) in αἱμωδία `a kind of Zahnweh';

    with formants -no- perhaps hom. αἰνός `terrible' with ion.-epischer Psilose (different above S. 10);

    with formants -ro-: ahd. as. afries. sēr, ags. sār `schmerzerregend', aisl. sārr `verwundet, schmerzerregend', (finn. sairas `krank' from dem Germ.), Subst. n. got. sair `pain', ahd. as.afries. sēr `pain', ags. sār `wound, pain', anord. sār n. `wound', Adv. nhd. sehr, ags. sāre `schmerzhaft, überaus', nhd. versehren;

    t-formations: air. sāeth `affliction, disease, malady' (*sai-tu-s), sāethar `affliction, toil, work' (*sai-turo-m); cymr. hoed `affliction';

    with formants -u̯o-: gr. αἰᾱνής, ion. αἰηνής `grausig, dismal ', eigentl. *σαιF-ᾱνής `with grausigem Antlitz' (to *ἆνος n. `face' = Old Indian *ānas- n. ds., compare ānana- n. `mouth, face'), durch influence of αἰεί also `ewig'; `(doubtful got. saiws m. `sea' (*sǝi-u̯i-), aisl. sǣr, siōr, ags. sǣ, as. ahd. sēo `sea'); lat. saevus `wütend, terrible, stern' (alat. also `big, large');lett. sievs, sīvs `sharp, biting, harsh', also `Jauche, Gerberlohe' and `beim Hanfstoßen gepreßtes Öl', lit. sývai m. Pl. `juice, sap beim Pressen'; lit. šaižùs `rough, sharp' (*saižus).

Maybe alb. (*sēr) ther `hurt, slice, cut, injure' [common alb. s- > th- shift]

References: WP. II 445, WH. II 462 f., Trautmann 261.

Page(s): 877


Root / lemma: sā̆lo-

Meaning: to wave, *sea

German meaning: etwa `wogend'

Material: Illyr. FlN Salon; lat. salum (and salus Ennius) ` restless sea swell, river current, the open sea, high sea, main, deep '; mir. sal under sā(i)le m. `sea'; gall. FlN Salia ` Seille ' = air. Sa(i)le (Schottland) = abrit. *Salia > *Halia > mengl. Hail = hispan. Salia etc; *Salantia `Salence' (Switzerland): apr. salus ` Regenbach ', lit. FlN Salantas.

References: WP. II 454, WH. II 471, Krahe BzNf. 3, 242.

Page(s): 879-880


Root / lemma: sāno-s

Meaning: healthy

German meaning: `gesund, heil'?

Material: Lat. sānus `fit, healthy, heil', sānō, -āre `heal, cure'; umbr. sanes Abl. `sound, whole, healthy, well', is doubtfully positioned to the root *sā- ` give satisfaction, gratify, satiates, satiate '.

Maybe alb. (*sānare) shëronj `cure' [rhotacism n/r], shëndet`health' : lat. `sanitas soundness of body, health'.

References: WP. II 445, 452, WH. II 476, Krahe IF. 59, 166 ff., different Lejeune RPh. 25, 218 f.

Page(s): 880


Root / lemma: sā-ti-

See also: s. sā-.

Page(s): 880


Root / lemma: sā́u̯el-, sāu̯ol-, suu̯él-, su̯el-, sūl-

Meaning: sun

German meaning: `Sonne'

Comments: next to which su̯en-, sun-, thus of old l/n-stem; su̯el- ` smolder, burn ' is probably identical with it

Material: 1. Old Indian ved. súvar n. = av. hvarǝ ` sun, light, sky ', Gen. súraḥ = jav. hūrō, Old Indian sū́rya- (*sūlii̯o-) m. (compare gr. ἥλιος), sūra- m. ` sun '; therefrom Old Indian sūrta- ` light, bright ', Old Indian svárṇara- m. ` bright space, ether ', av. x ̌arǝnah-, ар. -farnah- ` shining fame, magnificence ';

Note:

Clearly Old Indian ved. súvar n. = av. hvarǝ ` sun, light, sky ' derived from a people who spoke a language similar to Greek. The reason for that is that both Old Indian ved. súvar n. = av. hvarǝ ` sun' and kret. ἀβέλιος Hes. (i.e. ̄Fελιος) ` sun ' reflect the common phonetic mutation kw > p, gw > b attested in Greek, Illyrian and Celtic tongues. Hence the oldest root for both Vedic languages and Greek dialect was certainly sāhu̯el- `sun, the eye of a giant (according to the Vedas)'. Probably sun meant `the eye of El' attested in Semitic languages and earlier Enlil the supreme god of Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians.

In lat. lat. oculus `eye' (ōkʷelo-s); and sol `sun' derived from the same lat. root (*sōhʷelo-s, ōkʷelo-s) `eye, sun'. phonetically (*sōhʷelo-s) `eye, sun' is a compound of IE Root / lemma: okʷ- `eye' + diminutive -el which derived from Semitic El `god'. Hittites and Illyrians (who probably came from Asia Minor) borrowed this suffix -el, -il to deify a dead king and call him literally `sun god'. The only tongues which preserved the ancient initial s- are actually truncated alb. geg. (*ʷu̯eni-) > sʷni, syni  `eye' (n/l stem) and Old Irish (*ʷu̯el-) súil `eye'.

It is detrimental for alb. and gr. to identify similar phonetic mutations which are unique for those languages alone. Cognates for the sun in alb. and gr. are created in the same way as cognates for the sweat.

Alb. usually developed zero grade by dropping the initial su- > zero as in Old Indian śváśura-, av. x ̌asura- `father-in-law' > alb. vjehërr ` father-in-law ', hence alb. djersë ` sweat ' (*sūderis) reflects the same phonetic mutation attested in gr. (ε)ἶδος (ion.) n. ` sweat ', hom. etc (ε)/δίω, att. ̄δί̄ω `sweat', ̄δρώς, -ῶτος, att. ̄δρώς ` sweat '. That means that gr. and illyr. cognates were created simultaneously hence both languages derived from the same proto illyr.-gr. mother tongue. Since gr. displays the same phonetic mutations as alb. and illyr. that means that both illyr. and gr. come from the same ancestor.

Clearly alb. hüll, üll ` star ' and gr. hom. ἠέλιος, att. ἥλιος, dor. ἀέλιος, ̄λιος, kret. ἀβέλιος Hes. (i.e. ̄Fελιος) `sun' are not formations of the root *sāu̯el but of *sāhu̯el becayse only hw, kw > p, b in kret. ἀβέλιος and in general in gr. that means that the cognate of swet and sun in alb. and gr. were created according to alb. phonetic mutations. Only alb. drops the initial su- > zero grade. Other languages including Celtic, Greek dialects simply followed suit. In Germanic language the group kw > g in got. sugil, ags. sygel, sigel from urgerm. *sugila-, ablaut. with as. swigli `bright, radiating' from *swegila-, ags. sweg(e)l n. `sky, heaven, sun', swegle `bright, radiating'. 

 

 

Other forms in Indo-Aryan: *suu̯ar- [in names] `sun(god)' (Near-Eastern IA); Av.: OAv. huuarǝ̄ [n] (< *húu̯ar) `sun' (gen.sg. xvǝ̄ṇg < *huu̯ánh); LAv. huuarǝ (gen.sg. < *huu̯ánh, next to hūrō = Ved. sū́ras), Sogd. (Man.) xwr `sun', Middle Persian xwr `sun', New Persian xwr `sun', Oss. xūr/xor `sun'

Maybe gemination in alb. (*xel-xen) shkëlqen 'sunshine' or maybe alb. (*σελαγεῖν) *xelagein, shkëlqen `shines' from gr. σελαγεῖν `shines'.

maybe Luvian: (<h̲u-wa-ya-al-li ) <h̲uwayalla/i- ' Epithet of the Sun-god', also Luvian: h̲īrūtalla/i- `by which one swears' Attestations: ([NSgC] h̲i-i-ru-ta-al-li-iš: 78,9*.12*.13*), (h̲i-i-ru-ú-ta-al-li-iš: 78,11), ([D-LSg] h̲i-i-ru-ta-al-li: 39 iv 21). ' Epithet of the Sun-god. Cf. also frag. KBo XXIX 18,3* '.

    gr. hom. ἠέλιος, att. ἥλιος, dor. ἀέλιος, ̄λιος, kret. ἀβέλιος Hes. (i.e. ̄Fελιος) `sun', further formations of n. *sāu̯el to m. -i̯o-stem (compare Old Indian sū́rya-); lat. sōl, -is m. `sun' (from neutr. *sāu̯el about *sāu̯ol, *sāol); cymr. haul, acorn. heuul, mcorn. heul, houl, bret. heol `sun' (*sāu̯el-); in addition air. sūil f. `eye' from *sūli-, ablautgleich with Old Indian sū́raḥ, and alb. hüll, üll ` star ' (*sūlo- or *sūli-); [the shift li > ll]

maybe alb. (*sūl-) shullë `sunny spot' not from lat. locus solānus 'sunny spot'.

perhaps alb. geg. (*sūlni) syni, alb. tosk. syri 'eye' (In Aryan mythology the sun was the eye of a giant), sylla-mbylla `hide and seek (game)' literally `eyes closed', alb. TN Suli, Suliotë

    got. sauil n. (*sōwila-), aisl. sōl f. (*sōwulā) `sun', aisl. and-sø̄lis, aschw. and-sylis `the sun zugewendet';

    doubtful die Runennamen got. sugil, ags. sygel, sigel from urgerm. *sugila-, ablaut. with as. swigli `bright, radiating' from *swegila-, ags. sweg(e)l n. `sky, heaven, sun', swegle `bright, radiating' from *swagila-;

    balt. *sāu̯eli̯ā f. in lit. lett. sáulė ` sun ';

    slav. *sulnika- n. in aksl. slьnъce ` sun ' (das -ni- from *ogni `fire');

    2. Vom -en-stem:

    av. x ̌ǝng `the sun' (idg. *su̯en-s), Gen. from hvarǝ; got. sunnō (Dat. sunnin, neutr. after sauil), ags. sunna, ahd. sunno, sunna `sun', wherefore as `sonnseitig = südlich' aisl. suðr `Süden', Adv. `südwärts', ags. sūðerra, as. sūthar-liudi (`Südleute'), ahd. sundar `Süden', Adv. `südwärts', mhd. sund `Süden' etc (nhd. Süd from dem Nd.).

Perhaps toch. A swāñce, swāñco, toch. B swāñcai- `ray [of light], (sun) beam' reflect Proto toch. *swāñcai- which is possibly (with Hilmarsson, 1986a:263-95, in nuce Pisani, 1942-43a:29) related to Proto-Germanic *sunϑa- *`sunny' > `south' and *sunnō `sun' (cf. P:881-2; MA:556). The two Germanic words would reflect PIE *suhaṇto- (a derivative of *sehawel-/suhan- `sun') and, with "particularizing" -n-, *suhaṇtōn-/ suhaṇten-/suhaṇtn-. The attested paradigm of Germanic *sunnō reflects a conflation of the o-grade and the zero-grade stems (*suhaṇtn- > *sunϑn- > *sunn-). For Hilmarsson, the Tocharian forms represent a generalization of *suhaṇten-, further derived by the addition of -ai-.

It seems that the Root / lemma: saus-, sus- : (dry) derived from Root / lemma: sā́u̯el-, sāu̯ol-, suu̯él-, su̯el-, sūl- : (sun).

    alb. thanj (*sausni̯ō) ` dry '; gr. αὖος (Hom.), αὗος (att.) ` dry ' [common alb. the shift s > th]

In a similar way illyr. TN (*sāu̯elni̯)Taulant, Daulant [common alb. phonetic shift n > nt] ` people of the sun? '.

Note:

The shift of initial (*su̯e- > the-) is a common alb. phonetic mutation. See Root / lemma: su̯ergh- Meaning: to take care of; to be ill. Hence alb. dergjem `be bedridden, be sick' actually derived from (*su̯ergh-, therg-em) where -em is the reflexive alb. ending. While the alb. shift th > t, d was attested very early among Illyrians in TN Taulant, Daulant (*Thaulant)`people of the sun'.

In a similar way illyr. TN (*sāu̯elni̯ `sun')Taulant, Daulant [common alb. phonetic shift n > nt] ` people of the sun? ', (*sāu̯el > thael) diell `sun'. The shift ae > e, ie similar to alb. (*caelum) kiel, qiell `sky' from lat. caelum (1) -i n. the burin or engraving tool. caelum (2) -i n. the heavens, sky, air, climate. Esp. heaven as the home of the gods; fig., heaven as the height of joy, renown, etc.

But the name of the sun in alb. might derive from truncated [illyr. (Hes.) Δει-πάτυρος] alb. (*Δει- ἠέλιος)  diell `sun god, sun', older dielë `Sunday (day of the sun)', alb. (*dína) dita `day' : Old Indian dína-m (esp. in compound `day' [common alb. n > nt > t phonetic mutation].

Maybe alb. (*tiwali) diell 'sun' corresponds to Luvian: tiwali(ya)- `of the Sun-(god)' and Hitt. dšiuš `(sun)god'. 

Hitt. dšiuš `(sun)god', Luvian DŠiwata- `Sun-god' Attestations: [VSg] DŠi-wa-ta: KBo XXII 137 iii 8.

see Root / lemma: dei-1, dei̯ǝ-, dī-, di̯ā- : `to shine; day; sun; God'

Comments:

Finally the mystery of the name for the sun god Apollo has been solved: gr. 'Απόλλων, -ωνος; various dialectic forms: 'Απέλλων (dor.), 'Απείλων (kypr.), Α῎πλουν (thess.). - Seit J. Schmidt KZ 32, 327ff. all are linked to kret. ἀβέλιος Hes. (i.e. ̄Fελιος) ` sun '. It seems that the sun god 'Απόλλων derived from kret. ἀβέλιος Hes. (i.e. ̄Fελιος) ` sun '. The common phonetic mutation in gr. λι > λλ has taken place. Both 'Απέλλων (dor.), 'Απείλων (kypr.), Α῎πλουν (thess.) and kret. ἀβέλιος Hes. (i.e. ̄Fελιος) ` sun ' derived from the same root *sāhu̯el `sun' where the common gr. phonetic mutation hw > kw > p, b has taken place.

Phonetically the contrast hw > kw > p, b in Greek towards hw > kw > k, g in Germanic languages appears regularly in other root words. Typically in Root / lemma: sā́u̯el-, sāu̯ol-, suu̯él-, su̯el-, sūl- : (sun), kret. ἀβέλιος Hes. (i.e. ̄Fελιος) ` sun ' stands against got. sugil, ags. sygel, sigel, urgerm. *sugila-, swigli, *swegila-, ags. sweg(e)l n., swegle, *swagila-; the same as in Root / lemma: agʷh-no-s : (lamb), gr. (*ἀβνός) ἀμνός m. f., ἀμνή f. 'lamb'; umbr. habina(f) ` agnas', *abnīno- = lat. agninus 'of a lamb; f. as subst., lamb's flesh', stand against lat. agnus, - ī, fem.-a 'lamb' (agnīle 'sheep stable', aksl. jagnilo ` locus, ubi oves parturiunt ', jagniti 'to lamb'; air. ūan cymr. oen, acorn. oin, bret. oan 'lamb', urk. *ognos, ags. ēanian, engl. to yean 'to lamb', ndl. oonen ds. aksl. (j)agne ̨ 'lamb', (j)agnьcь 'lambkins'.

Note:

Romany kham `sun' derived from Greek Romany -hw- > -kw- > -p-, -b- > -mb- > -m- shift.

 

References: WP. II 446 f., WH. II 553 f., Trautmann 251, A. Scherer Gestirnnamen 45 ff.

Page(s): 881-882


Root / lemma: sā-, sǝ-

Meaning: satiated

German meaning: `satt; sättigen'

Material: Old Indian a-si-n-vá-, ásinvan `unersättlich' (places ein Praes. *sǝ-néu-mi, *sǝ-nu̯-ṓ ahead);

    arm. at-ok` `full, ausgewachsen'; haè, haèoy `zufrieden' (*sadi̯o-);

    gr. thematic present ἄεται `sättigt sich' (Hesiod; *sǝ-i̯ṓ), athematic Wurzelaor. ̄μεναι (Hom.) `sich sättigen'; Aor. Inf. ἆσαι `sättigen' and ` satiated become', ἕωμεν (*ἥομεν, Konj. Aor.), Fut. ̄σειν, etc; -ατος (*n̥-sǝ-tos) `unersättlich', ἅδην = böot. ἅδᾱν `bis zur Sättigung, genug' (Akk. from ἅδᾱ `Sättigung'); ἁδη-φάγος `gefräßig', ἁδινός `dense, rich', ἁδρός `dense, reif';äol. ἄσα, ion. ἄση `Übersättigung, Überdruß, Kummer' (*sǝ-sā with preservation of σ after δῖπ-σα, δόκ-σα), whereof ion. ἀσάομαι `bin satiated, ekle mich', ἀσάω `übersättige', ἄσᾱρος, ἀσηρός `verächtlich; Ekel erregend';

    lat. satis `genug' (originally Subst. `Sättigung'), Kompar. satius; satietās, syllabisch dissimilated satiās `Sättigung. hinreichende Menge, Überdruß'; satur ` satiated ' (ro-extension einesu-stem);

    air. sāith (*sāti-) ` satiety '; sāithech ` satiated ';

    got. Dat. Sg. sōÞa (Nom. *sōÞ n. or *sōÞs m.) `Sättigung', post-verbal to gasōÞjan `sättigen' = ags. gesēdan ds.;

Maybe truncated alb. (*gasōÞjan) ngos, ngij `sate'.

got. saÞs, aisl. saðr, as. sad, ahd. sat ` satiated ', ags. sæd ` satiated, überdrüssig', eng. sad ` grieving, ernst'; derived aisl. seðja, mhd. seten, setten `sattigen' and ags. sadian ` satiated become', ahd. satōn `sättigen';

    lit. sótis f. `Sättigung', sōtùs ` satiated ', post-verbal to sótinti `sättigen'; aksl. sуtъ ` satiated ' (with unclear y).

References: WP. II 444 f., 452; WH. II 481 f., Trautmann 250; Wissmann, The ältesten Postverbalia 67 f.;

See also: s. also sāno-s.

Page(s): 876


 

Root / lemma: sed-

Meaning: to sit

German meaning: `sitzen'

Grammatical information: originally only aoristisch, punctual `sich place' (Old Indian), later as duratives stative verb with ē-suffix `sitzen' (lat. germ. balto-slav.)

Material: 1. Old Indian sad- (sátsi, ásadat, Pf. sasā́da, sēdimá, sēdivás-, compare av. hazdyā-t Opt.);

    av. ap. had- (with Präverbien) `sich place' (nišaŋhasti for *nišasti); Kaus. (lengthened grade) Old Indian sādayati ` places ', av. ni-šāδayeiti `läßt niedersitzen, places nieder', ap. niyašādayam `I setzte';

    arm. nstim `sit, put mich' (perhaps i̯o-Praes. *ni-zdi̯ō); hecanim `sit auf, reite' (c from d + aor. -s);

    gr. ἕζομαι `sit, put mich' (Aor. εἷσα Hom., ἕσσαι Pind.); Kaus. ὁδεῖν, ὁδᾶν `verkaufen', eigentl. `place' (Specht KZ. 62, 51);

    lat. sedeō, -ēre, sēdi `sitzen' (present due to of originally außerpräs. stem sedē-; Perf. from *se-zd-ai), umbr. sersitu `sedētō', zeřef `sedens', andersesust `intersiderit', lat. sēdō, -āre `beruhigen' (perhaps = mnd. sāten `beruhigen', Wissmann Nom. postv. 112, 1); air. sa(i)did (*se(i)did), `sitzt', Fut. seiss (*sed-s-ti), adsuidi `schiebt auf, verzögert, hält auf' (Kaus. *sodei̯et; otherwise durch Denom. suidigud `place' verdrängt); cymr. seddu `sitzen';

Maybe alb. geg. me shitë 'to sell in a place'

    aisl. sit, Inf. sitia, as. sittiu, ahd. sizzu `sit' (= ἕζομαι, πι-έζω; got. sitan is probably reshuffling from *sitjan; Praet. sat, sētum), Kaus. got. satjan, aisl. setia, ahd. sezzen `place' (*sodei̯ō);

Maybe alb. shëtit 'walk slowly over a place'

    lit. *sė́dmi and sė́džiu, sė́dime (*sēd-), Inf. sėdė́ti `sitzen', participle Perf. sė́dęs (as apr. sīdons `sitzend', aksl. sědъ), aksl. sěždǫ, sěděti `sitzen'; besides in aèech. seděti (: lat. sedēre); lit. sė́du, sė́sti, lett. sēst (*sēstēi) `sich place', aksl. sěsti ds. (present sędǫ, see under), Kaus. saditi (*sōdei̯ō) `place, pflanzen', lit. sodinù sodìnti `place, pflanzen';

Maybe alb. sodit 'observe, watch from a place'

apr. with (*ŏ) saddinna `places'; aksl. sędǫ `put mich' (Inf. sěsti) based on auf secondary nasalization of *sědǫ (= lit. sė́du); also apr. syndens, sinda(n)ts `sitzend' shows nasalization; s. Kuiper Nasalpräs. 192 f., wo Old Indian āsandī́ `seat' to ā́stē `sitzt' (above S. 342 f.) gestellt wird;

    2. forms with i-Red.:

    Old Indian sī́dati `sitzt' (for *sīḍati from redupl. *si-zd-ati, with replacement from durch d after sad-); av. hiδaiti `sitzt'; gr. ἵζω `put' = lat. sīdō `put mich' (*si-zdō), umbr. sistu `consīditō', andersistu `*intersīditō' (*si-zd-etōd);

Maybe zero grade of alb. geg. (*īḍati) ndejt `to sit' [common alb. s- > zero phonetic mutation] : Old Indian sī́dati `sitzt'.

    3. nominal formation:

    *sed-to- in Old Indian sattá- `gesessen', av. pasuš-hasta- m. ` hurdle (*settlement) for small cattle', lat. in the case of-sessus etc, aisl. ags. sess m. `seat', compare also lit. participle sė́stas and lit. sóstas m. `seat', apr. sosto f. ` bench '; *sed-ti in Old Indian satti- `das Sitzen', ní-ṣatti- `das Sitzen, seat', av. ni-šasti- `Begattung', lat. sessiō `Sitzung', from *sessis; Old Indian sáttar- m. the `Sitzer', lat. ad-, in the case of-, pos-sessor;

maybe alb. (*sess), shesh 'plain, flatness, square'.

    Old Indian sádas- n. `seat, place, abode, residence', gr. ἕδος n. `seat'; av. apers. hadiš- `Wohnsitz, palace' (idg. -ǝs or -is); lengthened grade aisl. sǣtr (*sātiz) n. `seat, Sommersitz, Alm'; air. sīd `peace', originally n. es-stem, identical with sīd n. es-stem `dwelling göttlicher creature ' (compare engl. settlement);

    o-grade: air. suide n. (*sodi̯om) `seat, sitzen' = lat. solium `Thron';

    noun actionis sē̆d- in: Old Indian Akk. sádam, Dat. sáde, with ē-extension in lat. sēdēs f. `seat'(sēdibus = lit. Inf. sėdė́-ti: 1 Pl. sė́di-me), umbr. sersi `in sēdē'; noun agentis as 2. compound part: Old Indian apsu-ṣád- `the in den Wassern wohnt', av. maiδyōi-šāδǝm (Akk.) `the in the Mitte wohnt'; lat. prae-ses `Vorsitzender', dē-ses `idle' = air. deïd ds. (i-inflection secondary), to deëss ` sluggishness ' (*de-sed-tā); with lat. subsidium `Unterstützung' compare air. fothae m. n. `base' from *upo-sodi̯om, to air. suide;

    aisl. set n. `erhöhter bottom', Pl. sjǫt `dwelling', ags. set n. `seat, Lager, Stall, Sonnenuntergang', ahd. sez n. `seat, seat, buttocks, Belagerung';

    cymr. sedd f. `seat' (*sedā); hedd m. `peace' (*sedos); mbret. hezaff `cease', mcorn. hathy ds.; gor-sedd `Thron, hill'; eistedd `Sitzen', abret. estid `sedile' (*eks-dī-sedo-), gall. essedum, -a `zweirädriger Kriegswagen' (with *en-, compare gr. ἔν-εδρον, ἐν-έδρα `Hinterhalt', air. in-dessid `insīdit'; skyth. VN `Εσσηδόνες);

    gr. ἕδρα `seat' aisl. setr n. `seat, Sitzen':

    lok. ἑλλά̄ καθέδρα Hes. = lat. sella (*sed-lā) `Stuhl seat', gall. sedlon `seat', got. sitls, ags. setl n.; ahd. sezzal m. `seat, seat' (*sed-lo-); nsorb. sedlo `seat'; but aksl. sedlo `saddle' is *sedъlo, compare aksl. o-sedъlati `satteln', arm. etɫ `place' (in addition auchteɫi `place');

    as. sethal m. `Sitzen, seat', Dat. sedle `(to) Sonnenuntergang', ahd. sethal, sedal n. m. `seat, Wohnsitz, site' (idg. *sétlo- from *sedtlo); therefrom ahd. sidilo `agricola', mhd. sidilen `siedeln'; germ. *saðulǝ- in: aisl. sǫðull, ags. sadol, ahd. satul, satal `saddle' is ostidg. Lw. (?); compare above slav. *sedъlo from *sedu-lo- n.; besides (in ar. geneuertes = renamed, has changed???) *sed-tlom in av. hastra- n. `congregation, meeting' = Old Indian sattrá- n. `Feier, festival'.

Maybe alb. stol 'throne' : lat. solium ` throne'.

    lengthened gradee formations: Old Indian sādá- m. `das Sitzen', sādín- `(aufsitzend =) reitend, equestrian ' (compare also russ. vsádnik ` equestrian '), aisl. sāt f. `Hinterhalt', ags. sǣt ds., ahd. -sāza (in place names) `Wohnsitz', mhd. sāze f. `seat, domicile, Hinterhalt', i̯o-Adj. aisl. sǣtr `zum Sitzen geeignet', see above whereof sǣti under `seat, Heuhaufe' = ahd. gisāzi `seat, buttocks '; urbalt. *sōsta- `seat' (*sōd-to-) in lit. sóstas m. `seat', apr. sosto f. ` bench ', compare aisl. sess n. `seat' above S. 885; aksl. prě-sěda `insidiae';

    with ō: cymr. hawdd `light' = corn. hueth `ruhig' (Loth RC 36, 162);

    cymr. sawdd `depth, Absinken';

    aisl. ags. sōt `smut' (`Angesetztes');

    lit. súodžiai Pl., lett. suõdrẽji `smut', bulg. sážda f., èech. sáze (*sōdi̯o-) unclear air. sūide f., cymr. huddygl, bret. huzel `smut'; aksl. sadъ `Pflanzung' (*sōdu-);

    4. Mehr or less verdunkelte compositions:

    Old Indian nḗdīyas- `näher', nḗdiṣṭha- `nächst' = av. nazdyō adv. `(spacial) näher an-', nazdišta- `the nächste', av. ašna- Adj. `nahe' (*ō̆-zd-na-, participle Perf. Pass., compare full grade Old Indian ā́sanna- `nahe').

    ni-zd-os, -оm `nest' (Präf. ni- `nieder', or `ein-' as `place zum Nieder- or Einsitzen'): Old Indian nīḍá- m. n. `Ruheplatz, Lager', arm. nist `Lage, seat, Residenz', lat. nīdus `nest', mir. net `nest', cymr. nyth `nest, dwelling', corn. neid, bret. nez, neiz ds., ahd. ags. nest n. `nest'; with volksetymologischen Umgestaltungen lit. lìzdas, lett. ligzda, aksl. gnězdo `nest'; identical prefix in Old Indian niṣīdati ` places sich', av. nišhiδaiti, ар. niyašādayam, arm. nstim, see above;

    o-zdos `(ansitzender) twig, branch, bough', see there (ozdo-s); also gr. ὄζος ` fellow, servant' from *o-zdos `*Beisitzer'; or rather to B. *sed-?

    pi-s(e)d- `daraufsitzen = press': Old Indian pīḍayati (*pi-zd-ei̯ō) `presses, oppressed, afflicts' (Perf. pipīḍḗ; pīḍā `Druck, pain'), gr. πιέζω `push, press' (*πι-σεδι̯ω).

    B. *sed- in the meaning `gehen', from connection with Präfixen originated.

    Old Indian ā-sad- `hintreten, hingehen, gelangen', ut-sad- `sich zur Seite begeben, disappear', av. pazdayeiti `verscheucht (makes weggehen'), av. ара-had- `sich wegsetzen, ausweichen', āsnaoiti (*ō-zd-neu-ti) `geht heran' (see 886 ā̆sna-); gr. ὁδός `way', ὁδίτης `Wanderer', ὁδεύω `wandere'; aksl. chodъ `Gang', choditi `gehen'; ablaut. šьdъ `gegangen'; slav. ch- from idg. s-probably at first hinter pri- and u- originated.

    Here perhaps as compound with einem to Pron. о-, k̂i̯o- (above S. 609) respective Adv. *k̂i̯e-: av. syazd- `zurücktreten vor, aufgeben', sīždyamnā `zurückweichende', siždyō `aufgebend', sī̆ždra- `shy' and lat. cēdo (*k̂e-zd-ō) `schreite einher; weiche, give after', as well as necesse `notwendig', whether (?) from *ne-kezd-ti-s `es is kein Ausweichen'.

Root / lemma: sed- : (to sit) derived from Root / lemma: ē̆s- : (to sit).

References: WP. II 483 ff., WH. II 507 ff., 511, EM2 917 ff., Trautmann 248, 258 ff., 273.

Page(s): 884-887


Root / lemma: seg-1

Meaning: to sow

German meaning: `säen'

Comments: only lat. and kelt.

Material: Lat. seges, -etis f. `Saat', Seia `goddess of Säens' (*segi̯ā); acymr. segeticion `prolis', mcymr. se, he ` seed, sperm ', he-u, ncymr. hau `säen', hauaf `I sow '.

References: WP. II 480, WH. II 509 f.; compare sē(i)-2 `säen'.

Page(s): 887


Root / lemma: seg-2, nasalized seng-

Meaning: to attach; to touch

German meaning: `heften, sich anhängen, berühren'

Material: Old Indian sájati `anhängen' (with ā- `anheften', compare Perf. sasañja), Kausat. sañjayati `anheften', participle saktá- `anhaftend, angeheftet', sakti- f. `das Zusammenhängen', saŋga- ds., apers. frā-hajam `I liess aufhängen' (Aryan *sanjanti = slav. sęžetъ), av. vohuna-zga- (spā) `the sich ans blood heftende Bluthund';

    mir. sēn (*segno-) `Fangnetz', cymr. hoenyn (*sogno-), umgelautet hwynyn ds.; gallo-lat. sagum (*sogom or *segom) `Soldatenmantel'; mnd. mhd. senkel `Schnürriemen', nhd. `Schnürsenkel, Schuhriemen'; lit. sègti `heften', Iter. sagýti, ablaut. sãgas `loop zum Befestigen', sagà f. `Klammer, Schnalle'; lett. segt `cover', apr. sagis `Schnalle, Hufnagel'; aksl. sęgnǫti `ergreifen', sęžьnь `Klafter', pri-sęšti `touch' and `swear, vow', pri-sęga `oath'; ohneNasal: Iter. sagati `γαμεῖν', po-sagati, po-sagnǫti `nubere' (auf den Hochzeitsbrauch bezogen).

References: WP. II 448 f., 480 f., 482 f., WH. II 464, Trautmann 252, Kuiper Nasälpräs. 195.

Page(s): 887-888


Root / lemma: seĝh-, seĝhi-, seĝhu-

Meaning: to hold, possess; to overcome smbd.; victory

German meaning: `festhalten, halten; einen in Kampf überwältigen; Sieg'

Material: Old Indian sáhatē `bewältigt, vermag, erträgt', sáhas- n. `force, might, victory' = av. hazah- n. `Gewalt(tat), Raub', Old Indian sakṣa-, sakṣáṇa- `tamer, Sieger', sáhu-ri- `vast, grand, victorious ' (: gr. ἐχυρός, ὀχυρός, compare also germ. *sigus-), av. haz- `sich bemächtigen, acquire' (present *zĝh-ō, e.g. 1. pl. Opt. zaēmā = gr. σχοῖμεν, redupl. *se-zĝh-o-, assimilated av. zaza-, e.g. 3. Pl. zazǝntī, Part. Perf. Akt. za-z-va Nom. Sg., za-z-uš-u Lok. Pl.; lengthened grade besides Perf. akt. Old Indian sāsā́ha also Med. sāsāhḗ, participle sāhvás-, present sā́hati, Imp. sā̆́kṣva `sei victorious ';

    Gr. ἔχω (εἶχον, ἔσχον, ἔσχηκα, ἕξω and σχήσω) `hold, besitze, have'; hom. ῝Εκτωρ, lesb. ἕκτωρ `Zurückhalter', ἕξις `Verhalten, Befinden', ἑκτικός `gewohnt, leidend', ἐχυρός, changing through ablaut ὀχυρός `haltbar, certainly, befestigt' (: Old Indian sahuri-, das originally o-stem war), ἐχέτλη `Pflugsterz' (= cymr. haeddel f. ds. < *seĝhedhlā), ἀζηχής (*-δια-εχής) `ohne Einhalt etwas tuend'; vom -es-stem εὐ-εξος εὐφυής Hes., εὐεξία `Wohlbefinden', ἑξῆς `the row after' (Gen. eines Adj. *ἑξός), ἑξείης ds.;

    o-grade: ἔξ-οχος `salient, superb', Adv. ἔξοχον, ἔξοχα `weitaus', thereafter hom. ὄχα `weitaus', ὄχος ` holder, Bewahrer', ὀχέω `hold, stütze; hold from, (er)trage', ὀχεύς `strap, the den Helm festhält, Spange, bar, bolt';

    with ō: εὐωχέω `tische auf, bewirte rich' (lengthening after dem example the compounds); ἀν-, δι-, κατ-, συν-οκωχή (in connection in Perf.-formations, as ὀπωπή produktiv gewordene lengthening);

    zero grade: ἴσχω (*si-zĝh-ō) `hold an, have', ἰσχάς f. `Anker', σχεῖν (see above), σχεθ-έειν, -εῖν, -έμεν `hold, stop', -σχετος `unaufhaltsam; unerträglich (affliction)', σχέσις f. `Haltung, state, status', σχέτλιος ` fatigueless, hartnäckig' (`*withstanding '), σκεθρός `concise, genau' (`*eng anliegend'), σχεδόν `nahe, beinahe' (`*sich eng woran holding '), σχερός `ununterbrochen', ἐπισχερώ Adv. ds., σχῆμα `Haltung, shape, form', σχολή `Einhalten, Ruhe, Muße; (wissenschaftliche) Beschäftigung in Mußestunden' (ein with it the changing by ablaut *ἄσχαλος `wer sich nicht halten kann' vermutet man as base from ἀσχαλάω, ἀσχάλλω `bin unwilling, ungehalten, angry, irate'); ἰσχύ̄ς, -ύος ` strength '(*Fι-σχῡ-ς) to Old Indian vi-sah- `in the Gewalt haben';

    kelt. PN Segisū(*-ō), Sego-māros, GN Segomō(n), f. Segetā, PN Sego-dūnon, Sego-briga, Segontion, mir. seg m. ` strength ', cymr. hy `bold'; cymr. haeddel, mbret. haezl, nbret. héalf., `Pflugsterz' (= ἐχέτλη, see above; a from e, also (?) in :) cymr. haer `entêté, pressant', Haer ` woman's name ', haeru `versichern, behaupten'; cymr. mbret. hael `cordial, généreux'; cymr. hoel `clavus' (*soĝhlā);

    illyr. PN Segesta in Pannonien, Ligurien, Sizilien;

    got. sigis n. `victory', ahd. sigi m. ds., german. PN Sigi-merus, Segi-mundus etc (idg. neutr.-is- or -es-stem), ahd. sigirōn `siegen'; ahd. sigu m., ags. sigor `victory', ahd. PN Sigur-mār (idg. neutr. -us-stem).

References: WP. II 481 f.

Page(s): 888-889


Root / lemma: seikʷ-

Meaning: to spill, pour, draft

German meaning: `ausgießen, seihen, rinnen, träufeln'

Material: Old Indian sḗcatē, siñcáti (asicat) `gießt from, begießt', sḗka- m. `Guß, Erguß, Besprengung', praseka- m. `Erguß, Ausguß'; av. haēk-, hinèaiti (hièaiti) `gießt from', fra-šaēkǝm Absolutiv `beimVergießen', hixra- n. `flüssiges Exkrement';

    gr. ἷξαι διηθῆσαι Hes., ion. ἰκμάς `Feuchtigkeit', ἰκμαλέος `humid, wet', ἰκμαίνω `benetze', τρύγοιπος `Mostsieb';

    lat. siat `οὐρεῖ'; siāre is probably from *sīcāre after meāre `mingere' reshaped; siccus `dry';

    gall. (goidel. or ven.-illyr.) FlN Sēquana `Seine', GN Sinquātis; FlN *Siparis `Sèvre' = ir. FlN Sechair;

    ahd. sīhan `seihen', ags. sēon ds., intr. `ausfließen'; ahd. as. ags. sīgan `tröpfelnd fall, sinken, flow', aisl. sīga `nieder or vorwärts glide, slide' (nhd. versiegen for older verseigen after dem Ptc. mhd. versigen), ahd. gisig `palus, stagnum', norw.-schwed. sil (*sīhila-) `Seite' (sila `seihen', wherewith norw. sila `unaufhörlich rain' under likewise probably identical is), ostfries. sīl `Schleuse', mnd. sīl `Schleuse, Ablaufkanal', sīlen `dränieren'; ags. seohtre f. (*sihtrōn-), mnd. sichter, sechter ` drainage ditch '; aisl. sīa `Seihe' (schw. Verb sīa `seihen'), ags. seohhe f., ahd. sīha `Seihe' (*sī̆h-u̯ōn-);

    mnd. sēge `triefend, triefäugig', mnd. mhd. seiger `slowly or tenacious tröpfelnd, faint, languid, schal', aisl. seigr `tough';

    in Germ. also forms with germ. k: ahd. mhd. seich `urine' (ahd. seihhen, mhd. seichen, nd. sēken `urinate, pass water'), ags. sicerian `einsickern', nd. sīkern, nhd. sickern, norw. sikla, schwed. sikkla `geifern; rieseln' = nd. sikkelen, norw. dial. sikla `small stream, brook', sīka `seihen', aisl. sīk n. `stehendes water', ags. sīc ` watercourse ' etc;

    nasallos serb. osjeka `Ebbe' (*sēkā); ksl. sьèǫ, sьcati `urinate, pass water', Iter. slov. síkati `hervorspritzen';

    besides eine root seikʷ- `dry', die probably about `abrinnen, versiegen = austrocken' mitseikʷ- `diffuse' to vereinigen is: av. haēèayeiti with us `trocknet from' (trans.), haēèah- n. `Trockenheit, aridity ', hiku- `dry';

    because of seip- lies probably *sei- `drip, trickle, rinnen' the basic.

References: WP. II 466 f., WH. II 531, Trautmann 260.

Page(s): 893-894


Root / lemma: seip-, seib-

Meaning: to pour, rain, sift, *sieve, stream, trickle, dribble

German meaning: `ausgießen, seihen, rinnen, tröpfeln'

Material: Ahd. sib, ndl. zeef, mnd. seve n., ags. sife n. `Sieb', in addition ags. siftan, mnd. siften, sichten, nhd. (from dem Nd.) sichten, and aisl. sef n. `juncus' (because of porösen Stengels); mnd. afries. sēver m. `mucus, slobber', ahd. seivar, mhd. seifer m. ds. (mhd. seifel m. `saliva' perhaps with germ. p, see below); md. sīfe `marshy Bodenstelle'; serb. sípiti `rieseln, fein rain';

    in Germ. also forms with germ. p (die den Schluß auf idg. b rechtfertigen): ags. sīpian, mnd. sīpen `drip, trickle', mhd. sīfen (st. V.) ds., schwed. dial. sipa `slow flow, sickern', mnd. sīp `Bächlein', here also the germ. name the Seife: germ. *saip(i̯)ō: finn. saip(p)io, ahd. sei(p)fa `Seife'; also `resin', mnd. sēpe `Seife', ags. sāpe f. (out of it nord. sāpa) `Seife', lat. sāpo (germ. Lw.); maybe beside germ. *saip(i̯)ōn- also *sēpon- `tallow, suet (also to Haarfärbemitteln verwendet)', das with lat. sēbum `tallow, suet' (probably genuine lat.) auf ein idg. *sē[i]bo- `tropfbares fat' beziehbar wäre (das lat. b wäre then Zeuge for eine root form auf idg. b); toch. A sip-, sep- `salben', sepal `Salbe'.

Maybe alb. (*sēpon-) sapun `soap', but older cognate zero grade alb. (*seifen) finjë `soapsuds, lye' [the common drop of initial se- sounds in alb. as in alb. (*śváśura-) vjehërr `father-in-law']

References: WP. II 467 f., WH. II 478, 504;

See also: s. S. 889 under sei-.

Page(s): 894


Root / lemma: sei-, soi-

Meaning: to be damp, to drip

German meaning: `tröpfeln, rinnen, feucht'

Material: With l-formants: FlN: venet. Silis, Silarus, ligur. Silarus, illyr. Silarus (Lukanien), hispan. Sil; mir. silid `tropft, flows, läßt flow', partially with sel- `sich bewegen' (see under su̯el-) contaminated; ags. sioloÞ `sea'; lit. séilė `saliva, slobber';

    with m-formants: cymr. hufen `Rahm' (*soimeno-); ahd. nhd. seim `Honigseim', aisl. seimr `Honigscheibe', ablaut. simi m. `sea', dän. sima av `abträufeln', westfäl. siǝmern `sickern' (as. *simarōn).

References: WP. II 464 f.;

See also: perhaps die base from seikʷ- and seip- `diffuse'.

Page(s): 889


Root / lemma: sek-1

Meaning: to flow out, dry out (of water)

German meaning: `abrinnen, versiegen, sich senken (vom Wasser)'

Material: Old Indian á-sak-ra-, redupl. a-sa-śc-át `not versiegend', víṣaktā `eine nicht milk gebende (versiegte) cow'; gr. hom. ἔσκετο φωνή `stockte, versiegte'; (*ἔσκετo, *se-sk-eto, redupl. Aor.), secondary nasalized lit. senkù, sèkti `fall (vom Wasserstand)', nusèkti `abfließen, dry become', seklùs `seicht', seklė̃, sẽkis `seichte place, sandbank', lett. sekls `seicht', sīku (*sinku, darnach:) sikt `versiegen', in addition with balt. un from on das Kaus. lit. sunk-iù, suñkti `absickern lassen', lett. sùcu, sùkt `durchseihe', Iter. sũkât, ostlit. sunkà `juice, sap'; aksl. i-sęknǫti `versiegen (vom water)', prě-sęknǫti ` abate '.

    Redupl. si-sk-us `dry (= versiegt)' in av. hišku- `dry' (also hiškva-), fem. hiškvī, mir. sesc, cymr. hysb `dry, unfruchtbar', bret. hesp `dry' (*sisku̯o-), air. sescenn `swamp, marsh, moor, fen' (`unfruchtbar'; compare aisl. saurr `moor, fen': ags. sēar `dry'), besides bret. hesk `dry, unfruchtbar', hesken ds., `from einer Kuh ohne calf and milk', heska `tarir', bret. hesquein (besides hespein) ds., corn. beuch heskyz `a dry cow', bret. hañvesk Adj., from einer Kuh, die in dem years not calf gehabt hat = mir. samaisc `young cow, zweijährige Färse' (*samo-sisku̯ī `die Sommertrockne'), die auf dem fem. *sisku̯ī, Gen. *sisku̯i̯ās based on and vor dem den case obl. eingebüßt haben; unclear is gr. ἰσχνός `arid, verschrumpft, schmächtig'.

References: WP. II 473 f., Trautmann 256 f., Kuiper Idg. Nasalpräs. 185 f.

Page(s): 894-895


Root / lemma: sekʷ-1

Meaning: to follow

German meaning: `folgen'

Grammatical information: mostly medial

Comments: as Terminus the Jägersprache originally eins with sekʷ-2, s. Wissmann in: Das Institut f. deutsche language under Literatur 1954, 142.

Material: Old Indian sácate `begleitet, folgt', sácati, síṣakti, 3. Pl. sáścati (: ἑσπόμην Aor.) ds., av. haèaitē, haèaiti ds., Old Indian sákman-, av. haxman- n. `Geleite, Genossenschaft'; Old Indian sākám (m. Instr.) `in Gemeinschaft with, nebst'; av. hakat̃ Adv. `to same time' (solidified Nom. Sg. n. of participle, *sekʷn̥t); Old Indian sáci Adv. `zugleich' (: lett. sec?); Old Indian sácā (m. Lok.) `together with, by, angesichts from', av. haèā, ap. haèā `fort from, from - from' (Instr. eines *sekʷo-s `folgend'); zero grade Old Indian ā́skra- (*ā-sk-ra-) `vereinigt', as av. āskiti f., ` association ' (vollstuf. haèiti- `Begleitung');

    because of ar. kh dubious: Old Indian sákhā (sákhi-) ` fellow, comrade, friend', av. haxay- (haši-) ds., ap. Haxāmaniš- ` ᾽Αχαιμένης';

    gr. ἕπομαι `folge', Aor. ἑσπόμην (redupl., compare Old Indian sáścati) and σπέσθαι, σπόμενος, ἐπί-σπου; due to eines *sokʷi̯o-s (= lat. socius, aisl. seggr): ἀοσσέω `help, stehe bei' (*sm̥-sokʷi̯ei̯ō), ἀοσσητήρ `Gehilfe'; participle *ἑπτός as base from σουν-επτᾶ-σθαι συνακολουθῆσαι Hes.;

maybe alb. (*sokʷ) shoku m. shoqe f. `friend'

    ablaut. ὀπά̄ων ` fellow ', ὀπάζω `lasse folgen', ὀπᾱδός, ion. ὀπηδός `Веgleiter' (*soqʷā `das Folgen, Gefolgschaft');

    lat. sequor, -ī `nachfolgen, begleiten, verfolgen', participle secūtus (after solūtus, volūtus, for older *sectos = gr. *ἑπτός, lit. at-sèktas `aufgespürt, aufgefunden'); īn-sequor `pursue' (: Old Indian anu-sac- `nachgehen'); compare sector, -ārī `eifrig begleiten', secta f. `Richtlinie, Partei, philosophische Schule'; secundus (participle Praes.) `the following, zweite';sequester, -tra, -trum, newer -tris, -tre `(*mitfolgend =) vermittelnd, Mittelsperson' (from einem n. es-stem -seku̯os derive  ); secus (with Akk.) `dense after, nebenbei, gemäß', solidified Nom. Sg. m. eines *sekʷo-s `folgend' (compare o. Old Indian sácā); to secus `after, less good' (from `folgend, zurückstehend') trat ein jüngerer compounds sĕquius; socius `teilnehmend, Gesellschafter, Teilnehmer, Bundesgenosse';

maybe alb. (*sekʷo-) shkoj ` go, follow', shko-zë ` beech, (*walking tree)' [-zë alb. diminutive suffix] similar to alb. bredh ` fir-tree, spruce', bredh ` wander, (walking tree)', (*sokʷ) shoku  `friend, follower'.

    Air. sechithir (= lat. sequitur) `folgt', sechem `das Folgen', sech (with Akk.) `vorbei an, about - out, nämlich', cymr. bret. hep `without' (compare Old Indian sácā, av. haèā̆, lat. secus);

    ahd. beinsegga `pedisequa', as. segg, ags. secʒ, aisl. seggr `Gefolgsmann, Geselle, man' (*sokʷi̯os);

    lit. sekù, sèkti, lett. seku, sekt `folgen; spüren, wittern', lit. at-sektas (see above), sekmė f. `Erfolg', lett. (veraltet) secen, sec (m. Akk.) `vorbei, längshin', (perhaps from *sekeną, *seki = Old Indian sáci).

References: WP. II 476 f., WH. II 506, 518, 519 f., Trautmann 254 f.

Page(s): 896-897


Root / lemma: sekʷ-2

Meaning: to see, show; to speak

German meaning: `bemerken, sehen; zeigen', originally `wittern, spüren' and (jünger) `sagen'

Comments: identical with sekʷ-1.

Material: Gr. ἐνέπω, ἐννέπω (-νν- verbalism the metr. lengthening) `sage an, erzähle' (Imp. ἔννεπε, Impf. ἔννεπε, Fut. ἐνι-σπήσω (*skʷ-ē-), Aor. ἐνι-σπεῖν, Imp. ἐνί-σπες, ἔνι-σπες, 2. Pl. ἔσπετε from *ἔν-σπετε), ἄσπετος `unsäglich; unsagbar groß, unendlich', πρόσ-εψις προσαγόρευσις Hes. (: lat. insectiō), θεσπέσιος ` wonderful, divine' (originally `from the divinity geoffenbart'), from *-σπέ-τιος; θέσπις, θέσπιος `Seher, Weissager' probably Verkürzung from θεσπέσιος; θεσπίζω `weissage'; ἀσπάζομαι `greet' (- from `ἐν'); ἀσπάσιος `willkommen, erwünscht, erfreut' (*-σπά-σιος);

    lat. īnseque `sag an' (= gr. ἔννεπε), also īnsece, с verschleppt from forms as: insectiōnēs `narrationes', insexit `dixerit'; inquam, inquis, -it `sage I, sagst du, sagt(e) er' (inquam Konjunktivform *en-skʷām `möcht' I say'; inquit originally themat. Aorist *en-skʷe-t as ἐνι-σπεῖν);

    umbr. prusikurent `pronuntiaverint', sukatu `declārātō, pronuntiātō'; k instead of p after forms with Entlabialisierung of *kʷ vor s, t;

    acymr. hepp, mcymr. heby(r), cymr. eb(e), ebr `sagte', mcymr. hebu `speak', go-hebu `antworten', cymr. `entsprechen', mcymr. gwrtheb `Antwort', cymr. `Einwand', corn. gorðeby `antworten'; mcymr. dihaereb `Sprichwort' (*dē-ad-pro-skʷo-), air. ārosc ds. (*ad-pro-skʷo-); mir. rosc `dithyrambische Dichtung' (*pro-skʷo-); air. in-coissig (*ind-com-sech- from *sekʷ-) `bezeichnet', tāsc `announcement' (*to-ad-skʷo-), ēcosc `apparition' (*en-kom-skʷo-); mcymr. atteb, ncymr. ateb `Antwort' (*ati-sekʷ-), air. aithesc n. `Antwort' (*ati-sku̯-om), con-secha `züchtigt', cosc ` punishment ' = cymr. cosp ds. (*kom-skʷo-m), air. diuschi `weckt' (*di-uss-sechi), air. insce ` discourse ' (*eni-sku̯-i̯ā), also air. scēl n. ` narration ' (*skʷetlo-n, from which borrows cymr. chwedl etc); mir. scoth f. `word';

    ahd. sagen `say' (*sokʷē-), besides germ. *sagi̯ō < *saʒwi̯ō in as. seggian, mnl. segghen, ags. secgan (engl. say), aisl. segja ds., abstract noun aisl. ahd. saga `Aussage, narration ' (nhd. Sage), ags. sagu f. ds.;

    lit. sekù, sèkti `narrare' (= (ἐν)έπω, inseque), sekimas `das Erzählen', sėkmė̃ f. ` narration, Sage', sakaũ, sakýti `say', pãsaka `Märchen' etc;

    aksl. soèiti ` indicate ', sokъ `Anzeiger, Ankläger', poln. osoka ` accusation, slander ' etc;

    older meaning sekʷ- `see' and `show' (see previously above ir. in-coissig, tāsc, auchcon-secha, cosc as lat. animadvertere also `rügen') in: air. rosc m. `eye, look' (*pro-skʷo-);

    got. saiƕan `see', aisl. sjā from sēa, ags. sēon, as. ahd. sehan, nhd. sehen; got. siuns `face, Sehkraft', aisl. sȳn, sjōn f. `vision, Sehvermögen, apparition', ags. sīen, as. siun `Sehvermögen, eye' from *se(g)wní; Adj. got. anasiuns, ags. gesīene, aisl. sȳnn `visible, ersichtlich', sȳnast `shine, appear, seem' (= `sich zeigen'); ahd. (gi)siht `das Betrachten, face, sight', ags. gesiht ds.;

    besides from lengthened gradeem *sē(g)wni-: ahd. selt-sāni, mhd. selt-sǣne `seldom' seltsam (but ags. seldsīene `seldom' from -*sa(g)wni-);

    hitt. šakuu̯a- n. Pl. `eyes', šakuu̯āi- `see'; toch. A šotre, В šotri `mark, token, sign' (*sekʷ-tr-).

maybe alb. *sekʷo-, šikoj, shikoj `see, care, follow', abbreviated shoh `see', also alb. geg. syni, tosk. siri `eye' from hitt. šakuu̯a- n. Pl. `eyes ': Scottish sùil `a look, expectation, orifice'.

Comments:

Hitt. and alb. prove that Root / lemma: okʷ- : `to see; eye' derived from Root / lemma: sekʷ-2 : `to see, show; to speak'

From PIE this root passed to Altaic languages:

Protoform: *sígá ( ˜ z-)

Meaning: to look, search

Mongolian protoform: *sigiɣa-

Tungus protoform: *sig-

Korean protoform: *èhắè-

Japanese protoform: *sánk-

Comments: ТМС 2, 78, Martin 236, Martin 1996, 27. Kor. *èhắè- is an assimilation < *sVhắè- = PJ *sá(n)kas-.

 

References: WP. II 477 ff., WH. I 702 f., Trautmann 255, Pedersen Toch. 69.

Page(s): 897-898


Root / lemma: selĝ-

Meaning: to throw away, pour out, send away, free

German meaning: `loslassen, entsenden, werfen, ausgießen'

Material: Old Indian sr̥játi, sárjati `entläßt, schießt, gießt', participle sr̥ṣṭá-, visárjana-m `Ausgießung' (sárga- `das Entlassen, Schießen, Gießen' with g durch Entgleisung); av. harǝzaiti, hǝrǝzaiti `entläßt, sendet from, schickt from', participle haršta-, harǝzā̆na- n. `das Lassen, Verlassen; Durchlassen, Filtrieren';

    air. selg f. `Jagd' (vom Loslassen the Hunde, Old Indian sr̥játi śúnaḥ), sleg f. `spear, javelin' (*sl̥gā); acymr. in-helcha `venando', helgha-ti `jage!', mcymr. hely, ncymr. hel, hela `hunt, chase', heliwr `Jäger', acorn. helhwr ds., mcorn. helhys, hellys `gejagt', corn. helfia `Jagen', bret. hem-olc'h `Jagd', di-elc'hat `atemlos sein';

    mhd. selken st. V. `tropfend niederfallen, sich senken (from Wolken)', ags. be-sylcan `enfeeble', *ā-seolcan `träge sein or become', only in participle ā-solcen, solcen `idle, faul', engl. sulky.

References: WP. II 508.

Page(s): 900-901


Root / lemma: selk-

Meaning: to drag; plough

German meaning: `ziehen'

Comments: perhaps with u̯elk- to eines originally root su̯elk- to vereinigen, s. lastly Specht KZ 66, 25 f.

Material: Arm. heɫg `slow, idle' (compare to meaning zögern : ziehen, ducere tempus); gr. ἕλκω `ziehe', ὁλκή f., ὁλκός m. `pull; das Geschleppte etc' = lat. sulcus `furrow', sulcō, -āre `pflügen', zero grade ags. sulh `furrow, plough', alb. helq, heq `pull, pull down' (*solkei̯ō);

    ahd. selah, ags. seolh, anord. selr `Seehund, Robbe' as `sich mühsam towing '?

    toch. В sälk- `herausziehen, vorführen'.

References: WP. II 507 f., WH. II 627, Frisk 77.

Page(s): 901


Root / lemma: sel-1

Meaning: dwelling

German meaning: `Wohnraum'

Material: Ahd. sal m. `dwelling, Saal, Halle', langob. sala ` courtyard, house, edifice, building', as. seli m. `dwelling, Saal, Tempel', ags. sæl n., salor n., `Halle, palace', sele m. `house, dwelling, Saal', aisl. salr m. `Saal, room, house', Pl. `dwelling, courtyard ', sel (*salja-) `chalet'; got. saljan `einkehren, bleiben', saliÞwōs Pl. `Einkehr, Herberge', ahd. salida, as. selitha, ags. seld `dwelling'; abg. selo `fundus, village', selitva `dwelling' (bildungsähnlich dem got. saliÞwōs); lit. salà f. `village'.

Maybe alb. sjell, solla aor. 'bring deliver' from Go. saljan `deliver, sacrifice'

References: WP. II 502 f., Trautmann 248.

Page(s): 898


Root / lemma: sel-2, su̯el-

Meaning: beam, board

German meaning: `Balken, Brett, from stems or Brettern Verfertigtes'

Material: Ags. selma, sealma, as. selmo `bed', eig. `das wooden bedstead '; lit. súolas ` bench ', lit.sìlė `trough, Schweinetrog', lett. sile `crib, trough'; alb. gjolë `Platte, auf die man Viehsalz legt' (*sēlā).

    With anlaut su̯-: gr. σέλμα, -ατος (by Hes. also ἕλματα) `balk, beam, Gebälk, scaffold, trestle, esp. Schiffsverdeck, thwart ', hom. ἐΰσσελμος `with guten Ruderbänken versehen', σελίς, -ίδος `plank, thwart '; also ahd. swelli, mhd. swelle `balk, beam, Grundbalken, Schwelle', aisl. svalar f. Pl., aschwed. svali `Galerie', nisl. svoli `Holzklotz', e-grade aisl. swill f. `Grundbalken, Schwelle', zero grade ags. syll, aisl. syll ds., mnd. sül, sülle, sille ds.

References: WP. II 503 f.

Page(s): 898-899


Root / lemma: sel-3

Meaning: to take, grab

German meaning: `nehmen, ergreifen'

Material: Gr. ἑλεῖν `nehmen, in die Gewalt bekommen', ἕλωρ n., ἑλώριον `booty, Raub, Fang'; doubtful lat.cōnsilium `Ratsversammlung, Entschluß'; cōnsulere senātum `den Senat versammeln', then `befragen', root nouns cōnsul, `Konsul';

    in addition as -u̯o-derivative air. selb f., cymr. helw m. ` appanage ', gall. (Julia) Luguselva woman's name (`*property of Lugus'), wherefore air. ad-selb- `bezeugen', to-ad-selb- `zuweisen, vorzeigen', to-selb `behalten'; perhaps also due to einer basis *slēi-: ir. slī̆- in fuil(l)em `Zinsen' (*fo-slī̆-mo-), adroilliu `verdiene' (ad-ro-slī̆-), -tuillim ds. (to-slī̆-); cymr. dyrllyddu, bret. deleza `verdienen' (*to-ro-slī-i̯-);

    as causative `nehmen make' here got. saljan `darbringen, sacrifice', aisl. selia, as. gisellian, ahd. sellen, ags. sellan `übergeben, verkaufen'; die nouns aisl. sal n. `Bezahlung', sala f., ags. salu `sale', ahd. sala `Übergabe eines Gutes', sal m. `blessing, das loud Testamentes to übergeben is' müssen postverbal sein; here aksl. sъlъ ` summoner ', sъlati `schicken'.

Maybe alb. (*sъlati), shet, shes `sell'.

References: WP. II 504 f., Trautmann 292.

Page(s): 899


Root / lemma: sel-4

Meaning: to spring

German meaning: `springen'

Material: Old Indian ucchalati `schnellt empor' (mind. from *ud-salati);

    gr. ἅλλομαι `spring, hüpfe' (*seli̯ō), ep. Aor. ἆλτο, Verbaln. ἅλμα `Sprung', ἅλσις `das Springen';

    lat. saliō, -īre, -uī (-ĭī), -tum `spring, hüpfen', saltus `Sprung', salax `horny, lustful', saltāre `tanzen', salebra `holprige place of Weges' (shaped after latebra); wherefore insultāre;

    mir. saltraid `zertritt', Verbalnomen cymr. sathru `Zertreten', mbret. saotra `Beschmutzen', Vannes sautrein `Zertreten, Beschmutzen';

    lit. ãtsala `Wasserlache', sálti `flow', apr. salus `Regenbach'; about lit. salà, lett. sala `island' s. Mühlenbach-Endzelin III 664;

    eine p-extension in lit. sal̃pas m. `Bucht, bosom' = slav. *solpъ in slov. slâp `waterfall, Woge'; slav. *selpjǫ, *sьlpati `spring' in aksl. vъ-slěpljǫ ds., Infin. ksl. slьpati.

References: WP. II 505, WH. II 468, Trautmann 256.

Page(s): 899


Root / lemma: sel-5

Meaning: to sneak, creep

German meaning: `schleichen, kriechen'

Material: Old Indian tsárati `slinks, slinks heran, beschleicht' with prefix [a]d-, tsáru m. `schleichendes animal', av. srvant-, sravant- `schleichend, anschleichend' (Part. from ar. *tsr-au-, u-extension bzw. u-present); so perhaps also arm. solim, Aor. solec̣ay `serpo, repo, delabor, trahor', solun `humi serpens, repens' (*t-sol- with alteration from ts- to s-?); gr. ἐιλίποδας βοῦς (Akk.) `schleppfüßig' (actually `schleichfüßig', compare:) εἰλιτενής epithet the Quecke, `die sich schleichweise ausdehnende' (metr. Dehnungen for ἑλι-); alb. shligë `snake, Natter'; air. selige, mir.seilche (*seleki̯o-) `turtle, tortoise, Schnecke'; air. *selid `slinks, crawls', Verbalnomen sleith (*sleth from *sl̥tā) `das Beschleichen einer schlafenden Frau', intled f. `Fallstrick' (*ind-ṡleth); nir. seilide `Schnecke' (air. *selit from *sel-n̥tī); lit. selù, selė́ti `slink, leise auftreten'.

References: WP. II 505 f., Trautmann 255, M. O'Brien Et. celt. 3, 370 f.; E. Schneider WuS. 21, 166 ff.

Page(s): 900


Root / lemma: sel-6, selǝ- : slā-

Meaning: lucky, luck

German meaning: `günstig, guter Stimmung; begütigen'

Material: Lat. sōlor, -āri `trösten, lindern, beschwichtigen'; air. slān `heil; fit, healthy';

    germ. *sēl- in got. sēls `good, tauglich', sēlei `Gute', aisl. sǣll `lucky', ags. sǣl m. f. `luck, Gelegenheit, time', gesǣlig `lucky'. ahd. as. sālig `lucky, blessed, gesegnet', ahd. sālida `Güte, luck, salvation' = as. sālða, ags. sǣlð, anord. sǣld f. `luck'; *sol- in ags. sēlra (*sōliza) `better', Adv. sēl `better';

    Auf einer heavy basis *s(e)lǝ- : slā- based on die gr. family of *̄λημι (*σί-σλη-μι) `bin günstig, gracious', Imp. hom. ἵληθι, theokr. ἵλᾰθι (*σί-σλᾰ-θι), next to which as Perf.-Imp. äol. ἔλλαθι (*σε-σλᾰθι); unredupl. present ἵλαμαι, after dem. redupl. ̄λα- umgefärbt from *ἕλαμαι (- still in ΏΕλάερα = ἱλάειρα by Steph. Byz.) as also ἱλαρός `cheerful, blithe, glad' from *ἑλαρός; ̄λάσκομαι (*σι-σλᾰ-σκομαι) `make mir jemanden günstig gesinnt, versöhne'; due to of present ̄λη-, ̄λᾰ- on the one hand lakon. ἵληFος, kret. ̄λεος, att. ̄λεως, ion. ̄λεως, on the other hand hom. ἵλα(F)ος, arkad. ̄λα(F)ος, lesb. ἴλλαος `günstig, gracious'.

References: WP. II 506 f., WH. II 556.

Page(s): 900


Root / lemma: selos-

Meaning: swamp, sea

German meaning: `Sumpf, See'

Grammatical information: n.

Material: Old Indian sáras- n. `Wasserbecken, pond, pool, sea', Sárasvatī f. FlN and GN (to sáras-vant- `wasserreich') = av. Harax ̌aitī, apers. Hara(h)uvatī `Arachosien'; Old Indian sarasyá- Adj. `pond, pool-, sea-'; gr. ἕλος n. `marshy, bewachsene lowland, depression', ἕλειος `palustris'.

References: WP. II 507.

Page(s): 901


Root / lemma: selp-

Meaning: fat n.

German meaning: `Fett (Butter, Schmalz)'

Material: Old Indian sarpís- n. `Schmelzbutter, Schmalz', sr̥prá- `geölt, glatt, blank'; gr. ἔλπος (n.) ἔλαιον, στέαρ Hes. and (with φ after ἄλειφα : λίπος?) ἔλφος βούτυρον. Κύπριοι Hes., ὄλπη, ὄλπις, -ιδος f. `Ölflasche'; alb. gjalp `Butter'; ahd. salba, as. salƀa, ags. sealf `Salbe', got. ahd. salbōn, as. salƀōn, ags. sealfian `salben';

    toch. A ṣälyp, В ṣalype `fat, Butter, Öl'.

References: WP. II 508.

Page(s): 901


Root / lemma: sem-1

Meaning: to pour

German meaning: `schöpfen, gießen'

Material: Gr. ἀμάομαι `sammle', ἄμη f. ` bucket; pail ' (out of it lat. ama `Feuereimer', from which mhd. ame, ome, nhd. Ohm `Flüssigkeitsmaß'), ἀμίς f. `Nachttopf', ἀμνίον n. `Opferschale', ἄμαλλα f. ` fascicle, sheaf '(ἄμιλλα), but ἄντλος, -ον `heap, Schiffsraum, Kielwasser' after Benveniste BSL. 50, 39 to hitt. ḫan- `giessen';

    illyr. FlN Semnus (Lucanien);

    lat. sentīna `Kielwasser, Schiffsjauche', sentīnō `schöpfe das Wasser from, habe meine Not';

    air. sem- `diffuse' in to-eks-sem- ds., to-uks-sem- `zeugen, erzeugen', Verbalnomen teistiu `Ausgießen', tuistiu `Zeugung, creation ' (*to-uks-sem-tiō) etc; compare due to einer abstufenden inflection -tiō(n)- : -tīn-es above lat. sentīna (originally Adj., scil. aqua); with -d- weitergebildetsend- in abret. do-uo-hinnom gl. `austum', cymr. gwe-hynnu `schöpfen, ausleeren';

    lit. semiù, sémti `schöpfen', sámtis `Schöpflöffel', with -el-Weiterbildung lett. smel̨u, smel̂t `schöpfen'.

References: WP. II 487 f., WH. II 514 f., Trautmann 256, Ifor Williams RC 40, 487, Frisk 88 f.

Page(s): 901-902


Root / lemma: sem-2

Meaning: one

German meaning: `eins' and `in eins zusammen, einheitlich, samt, with'

Material: 1. With vorherrschender Zahlwortbedeutung `eins':

    Arm. mi `eins' (*sm-ii̯os); gr. εἷς, ἕν, μία (*sems, *sem, *sm-iǝ), Gen. ἑνός (for *ἑμός or ἁμός after *ἕνς, ἕν) `ein'; μῶνυξ `Einhufer' (*σμ-ῶνυξ), kret. ἀμάκις, tarent. ἀμάτις `once', compounds dor. ἅτερος (att. ἕτερος) `the eine, the other from zweien' (= cymr. hanner, corn. bret.hanter `half');

    lat. sem-per `in einem fort, immer' (*sem = gr. ἕν, compare under germ. sin-); simītu `zugleich', Ablat. from *simītus < *sem-eitus `das Zusammengehen', compare air. emith `tanquam, quasi', cymr. hefyd `also' from *semiti-, to Old Indian sám-iti-; mīlle `1000' from *smī ĝheslī `eine Tausendheit' (irrig S. 446), compare das in *sm̥-ĝheslom zerlegte Old Indian sahásra-m, av. hazaŋra- `eintausend'; air. cumme `similarly' from *kom-smii̯o- `ganz the eine, the gleiche'; germ. *sin (i.e. idg. *sem in adv. Erstarrung) `*in einem' = `together' or `perpetual' or `absolutely, very' in as. ahd. sin-hīun, ags. sin-hīwan `conjuges, Ehegatten', got. sin-teins `daily', as. sin-nahti, ags. sin-niht `ewige night', mhd. sin-grüene, ags. sin-grēne, aisl. sī-grønn `immergrün', ags. sin-here `big Heer', ahd. sin-fluot `big, giant Flut', aisl. -valr, ags. sine-wealt, and. sinu-wel `ganz rund' etc;

    toch. A sas m. (komponiert ṣa-), В ṣe (older ṣes in ṣes-ka `allein') from *sem-s; A säṃ f. from *sem; compound form A ṣoma- (*semo-), В somo- (*somo-); Van Windekens Lexique 121.

    sm̥- as 1. composition part: Old Indian sakŕ̥t, av. ha-kǝrǝt̃ `once' (about Old Indian sa-hásram see above), gr. -παξ `once', -πλόος `simple, just', lat. sim-plus, -plex `simple, just', gr. -κατόν `ein-hundred' from *-κατόν after εἷς or einem *ἕν-κατον. compare under *sm̥ `in eins together, with'.

    With Gutturalsuffixen: gr. ἴγγια εἷς. Πάφιοι (*ἑν-για); lat. singuli `einzelne' (against it sincinium `Einzelgesang' not from *singo-caniom, but volksetymologische rearrangement from sicinnium from gr. σίκιννις `Tanz the Satyrn');

    with ĝh presumably arm. ez `einer' (*sem-ĝho-? with it hez `mild, rechtschaffen' as `einfach from Sitten' gleich? Pedersen KZ. 39, 414); with Old Indian śaśvant- `sich gleichmäßig erneuernd, eine ununterbrochene Reihe bildend, jeder, all' (from *sa-śvant-, with formants -u̯ent- from idg. *sm̥-k̂o- perhaps `in einem Zuge, in einer row'); perhaps alb. gjith `all, whole' (*sem-k̂o `from einerund derselben kind of'?).

Note:

Alb. gjith `all ' derives from *sist 'all' according to common alb. s > gj and s > th mutations. An older form is kurd. giSan 'first of all', giSt 'totally, all',  . It is clear that alb. phonetic mutations are of kurd. origin.

    With l-suffixes: gr. ὁμαλός `gleich, eben, glatt' (`*in einer kind of verlaufend') ablaut. lat. similis `similarly' (*semelis `from ein and derselben kind of'), simul, older semol, semul `zugleich' apokopiert from *semeli, next to which after bis, *tris (ter) erweitertes *semlis `once' in semel, umbr. sumel `zugleich' (with the same о as ὁμαλός? or letzteres previously after ὁμός from *ἁμαλός umgefärbt?); with Red.-stem air. samail `Bild, Gleichnis' (proklit. amal `as'), cymr. etc hafal `similarly, gleich', air. samlith `simul', cosmail `consimilis'; got. simlē `(*once =) einst', ags. sim(b)le, simles, simblon `immer', ahd. simble(s), simblum ds., auf einem n. *semlo-m `eine time' beruhend.

    2. semo- `einer' = `irgendeiner' (unbetont):

    Old Indian samá- `irgendein', av. ap. hama- `jeder beliebige, omnis';

    arm. amēn, amēn-ain `alle, omnis';

    gr. ἁμό- `irgend ein' in ἀμῆ, att. ἁμῆ `rgendwie', ἀμόθεν, att. ἁμόθεν `irgendwoher', ἀμῶς, att. ἁμῶς `irgendwie', οὐδ-αμός `nicht einer, keiner', οὐδαμῶς `keineswegs'; got. sums `irgend ein, ein gewisser', Pl. `einige, manche', aisl. sumr `quidam, nonnullus', as. ags. ahd. sum ds.

    3. `*in eins = together, with';

    sm̥-: Old Indian sa-há, sadhḁ `gemeinsam, together' = av. haδa, ар. hadā `together', Old Indian satrā́ `together, ganz and gar' = av. haϑrā̆ `together, zugleich, vereint with', Old Indian sádam, sádā `allzeit, stets immer' = av. haδa `immer', Old Indian sá-dhrī Adv. `together' (: root *dher- `hold, stop', as also:) gr. -θρόοι, att. -θρόοι `in association, gesamt', -λοχος `consors tori', -δελφός `couterinus', -κόλουθος `Weggefährte' (from - durch Aspiratendiss). - Old Indian smát `together with', av. mat̃ `ds.; immer, immerdar'; gr. ἅμα, dor. ἁμᾶ `in einem, zugleich', ἁμόθι `together'.

    som-: Old Indian sám- `together, zugleich with', av. ap. ha(m)- `with' (in connection with Verben and in Zs. with nouns; arm. ham- `with' probably from dem Iran.);

    lit. sam-, są- (e.g. sam-dýti `employ, engage', sán-dora `Eintracht', są́-žinė `Gewissen, conscientia'), apr. san-, sen- (san-insle `Gürtel'), sen (*sem) preposition `with' (idg. *sem); aksl. sǫ- `with' (sǫ-sědъ `Nachbar', compare Old Indian saṁ-sád- `congregation, meeting'), sǫ-logъ `consors tori', compare -λοχος etc;

    with aksl. sǫ- changing through ablaut is *sъn-, sъ (*som) e.g. in sъn-iti `convenire', sъ-vęzati `zusammenbinden' as well as sъ preposition `with'; whether lit. sù `with' dazugehört, could es samt aksl. sъ and gr. ξύν, σύν `with' auf idg. *ksu bzw. *ksun zurückgeführt become; compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 2, 4877.

    Von som- derives somo-s: Old Indian samá- `eben, gleich, derselbe', samám Adv. and preposition `together', samáyā, in same Weise, mitten hindurch', *samayati `ebnet, bringt in order', av. ap. hama- `gleich, derselbe', arm. omn `irgendwer' (Meillet Esquisse2 90); about Old Indian simá- `selbst' s. Wackernagel-Debrunner 3, 578;

    gr. ὁμός `gemeinsam; similarly, gleich, eben, glatt', ὁμοῦ Adv. and preposition `together', ὁμό-θεν `from the same Ort', ὁμό-σε `an denselben place', ὅμως `gleichwohl' (ὁμοῖος, natt. ὅμοιος `similarly'); here ὅμηρος (above S. 56), ὁμαρτέω `begleite' (to *ὅμαρτος from *som-r̥-to-s), after Szemerényi Gl. 33, 265 to *er-, above S. 327 f.; air. -som `ipse', air. sund `hier', cymr. hwnn `this' (from idg. *somdhe, welches to sondo- reshaped wurde); got. sa sama `derselbe', aisl. samr, inn sami `derselbe', samt Adv. `ununterbrocben', ahd. der samo `derselbe', compare also Zs. as got. sama-kuns, anord. samkynja `from gleichem gender, sex', gr. ὁμόγνιος ds., Old Indian sama-jātīya `gleichartig', anord. samfeðra, ὁμοπάτωρ, ар. hamapitar- `from the same Vater', aisl. sammø̄ðri, ὁμομήτριος `from derselben Mutter';

    ein ī-Fem. *somī, *smī `Beisammensein, association, partly also kämpfendes Aneinandergeraten' in Old Indian samī-ká- n. `fight, struggle, battle'; but gr. ὅμι-λος `heap, congregation, meeting, Schlachtgedränge', ὁμιλίᾱ `Umgang, Verkehr', ὁΏμῑλέω `verkehre' remain far off because of äol. ὄμιλλος, also lat. mīles, compare Szemerényi Arch. Ling. 6, 41; gr. ἅμιλλα `fight, fight, struggle, Wettstreit' (*sem-il-i̯a), ἁμιλλᾶσθαι `wettkämpfen';

    in addition with dem Begriffe of friedlichen Beisammenseins, also of Zusammenstimmens aisl. sama `passen, sich schicken'; got. samjan `gefallen, to gefallen suchen', aisl. semja (= Old Indian samayati) `zusammenstellen, vereinigen, einig become um, sort, order, arrange, zustandebringen'; in addition probably germ. *samÞia- in ahd. semfti (Adv. samfto) `bequem, gemächlich, friendly', nhd. sanft, as. sāfto Adv. `light', mnd. sachte Adj. Adv. `gentle, mild', ags. sēfte (Adv. sōfte) `ruhig, mild', compare in addition esp. Old Indian sāntva- n. `good beschwichtigende words', sā́man- m. n. `ds., Milde, freundliches Entgegenkommen';

    germ. *samÞia- is viell. from einem tu-stem *samÞu- reshaped, the with Old Indian sāntva- auf idg. *sōm-tu- go back kann;

    against it is ags. smēðe, smōð, as. smōði `glatt, eben, gentle, milde' because of westfäl. smǫiǝ from *smanÞi originated; got. samaÞ `together', as. samad, ags. samod, ahd. samit (samant with n after saman-), nhd. samt; eine d-derivative in Old Indian samád- f. `fight, fight, struggle', gr. ὅμαδος `Gewühl, Menschenmenge';

    lengthened grade Old Indian sāman-, sāmaná- `ruhig', sāma-gir- `freundliche words redend', sāntva- (see above), av. hāma- `gleich, derselbe', np. hāmūn `Ebene', air. sām `Ruhe' (from `*trauliches Beisammensein'), sāim `ruhig, mild', aisl. sōma (*sōmēn) `passen, geziemen', sōmi m. `honour, Auszeichnung', sø̄mr `proper, fitting', as. sōmi ds., ags. sōm f. `Einigkeit, congregation, meeting', ge-sōm `einmütig, friendly', mhd. suome `pleasant, mellifluous'; abgel. aisl. sø̄ma `sich finden in, Rücksicht nehmen auf, honour', ags. sēman `versöhnen'; engl. seem `befit, shine, appear, seem' is nord. Lw.;

    aksl. samъ `ipse, solus, unus';

    with n-formants: Old Indian sāman-, sāmana- see above; with -grade probably Old Indian samana- n. `Zusammenkunft, Festversammlung', samanā́ Adv. `together, gleichzeitig, ebenmäßig'; got. samana `beisammen', aisl.saman `together', ahd. saman, zi samane, nhd. zusammen; therefrom derived aisl. samna, ahd. samanōn, mhd. samenen `gather, collect', dissim. samelen, nhd. sammeln; with Red.-stem ir. samain `the festival of 1. Nov.' (actually `Zusammenkunft'), bech-ṡamain `Bienenschwarm';

    eine lengthened grade *sēm perhaps in gall. σο-σιν `dieses' and in n. of air. article (s)an, preceding from *sin, dieses from *sēm about *sīn; die übrigen forms are durch Übertragung the Endflexion auf eine Adv.-form *sinde (from *sēm-dhe; es läßt sich after Old Indian sa-dha idg. *dhe, odernach ir. suide from idg. *so-de (jo-inflection) = gr. -δε also idg. *de ansetzen) originated; Demonstr. ir. sin, cymr. hynn gehen auf den stem *sindo- back and stellen die enclitice form dar.

References: WP. II 488 ff., WH. II 511 f., 513, 533 ff., Trautmann 249 f.; J. Gonda, Reflections on the Numerals.

Page(s): 902-905


Root / lemma: sem-3

Meaning: summer

German meaning: `Sommer'

Grammatical information: (Gen. sem-ós)

Comments:

Root / lemma: sem-3 : `summer' has certainly derived from Root / lemma: ĝhei-2 : ĝhi- , ĝhei-men-, *ĝheimn-: `winter; snow' [common satem IE ĝhe- > se- phonetic mutation]. It seems that the Hittite-Illyrian name for winter became the Sanskrit name for summer. This discovery seems crucial to determine the homeland of Indo Europeans.

Material: Old Indian sámā f. `Halbjahr, Jahreszeit, year' (= arm. am), āi-ṣá-mah `heuer' (probably from einem Lok. *āi-samāi reshaped, see above S. 286); av. ham- `summer'; arm. am `year' (= Old Indian sámā), amaṙn `summer' (*semerom); air. sam (*semo-) and samrad (*semo-rōto-, above S. 866), cymr. corn. haf, bret. hañv `summer'; cymr. hafod `Sommerhaus', bret. havreg `Brachfeld', mir. samad m. `Ampfer'; gall. samon[ios] `Sommermonat', samolus `Sauerklee', samara `Ulmensamen'; remain far off the ibero-rom. a kind of fish samauca (Hubschmid. Rom. Phil. 8, 12 f.); ahd. sumar, ags. sumor m., aisl. sumar n. `summer'; as ` one-year-old animal' aisl. simull `(einjähriger) ox', simi, simir ds., norw. simla `Renntierkuh' (idg. sem-), schwed. somel `Renntierkalb'.

References: WP. II 492 f.

Page(s): 905


Root / lemma: sendhro-,

Meaning: clot, melted metal, etc.

German meaning: `geronnene, sich verdichtende Flüssigkeit'

Comments: only germ. and slav.

Material: Aisl. sindr n. `Metallschlacke' and `Hammerschlag' (in addition sindra `Funken sprühen'), ags. sinder ds., ahd. sinter ds., nhd. Sinter, Kalksinter (in addition sintern `durchsickern, curdle, coagulate, harden '); vermutlichverwandt is norw. dial. sinkla `sich with einer Eiskruste beziehen' as *sind-kla; serb.-ksl. sedry krьvьnyje, russ.-ksl. sjadry krovnyja ` coagulated Blutmassen', skr. sȅdra `Kalksinter', èech.sádra `Gips' (from *sēndhrā).

References: WP. II 497, Trautmann 256.

Page(s): 906


Root / lemma: sengʷh-

Meaning: to sing

German meaning: `singen, with singender Stimme vortragen'

Material: Prākr. saṃghai `say, instruct'; gr. ὀμφή `voice, Prophezeiung' (*songʷhā), πανομφαῖος `epithet of Zeus'; mcymr. de(h)ongl `define';

    got. siggwan `singen, vorlesen, rezitieren', aisl. syngua, ags. ahd. as. singan, singen; got. saggws `Gesang, Musik, Vorlesung', aisl. sǫngr `(kirchlicher) Gesang', ags. sang, song, ahd. as.sang, Sang `Gesang, Lied'.

References: WP. II 496, Bloch BSL 31, 62, Vendryes RC 48, 476; after W. Wüst (briefl.) belongs prākr. saṃghai to k̂ens-, above S. 566.

Page(s): 906-907


Root / lemma: sengʷ-

Meaning: to fall, sink

German meaning: `fallen, sinken'

Material: Arm. ankanim `fall, weiche, take ab'; gr. ἑάφθη `sank' (ἀσπίς);

    germ. *sinkwan in: got. sigqan, aisl. søkkva, ags. sincan, as. ahd. sinkan sinken, Intens. dän.-norw. sakka, ndl. zakken, nhd. sacken `sinken'; Adj. *sinhti- in ags. sīhte `sumpfig', mhd. sīht(e), nhd. seicht, alem. sīcht `very humid, wet' (from Wiesen).

References: WP. II 495 f.

Page(s): 906


Root / lemma: seni-, senu-, (seni-), sn̥-ter-

Meaning: for oneself; separate

German meaning: `for sich, abgesondert'

Material: Old Indian sanu-tár `abseits from, weit weg', sánutara- (?), sánutya- `verstohlen, unvermerkt' (`*beiseite'), av. hanarǝ `abseits, without'; gr. ἄτερ (ion.) `abseits, without' (*sn̥ter);

    as. sundir `without' (= ἄτερ), ahd. suntar `abgesondert' and `but, against it', nhd. sondern (diese meaning from `besides, without'), ags. sundor `for sich, besonders', anord. sundr ` divided ', got. sundrō `for sich, abseits, besonders', Adj. mhd. sunder, besunder, nhd. besonder;

    lat. sine `without' (probably neutr. *seni, nächststehend dem ir. sain from *seni-);

    air. sain Adj. `different, besonders' (*seni-s), cymr. o-han-, a-han- `from', gwa-han `apart, separated, different', acymr. han `alium'; cymr. hanes ` narration ' = mir. sanas ` mystery, Lispeln' (*sani-stā); corn. hanys ` clandestine '; toch. A sne, В snai (*sanai) `without';

    The meaning `abgesondert, for sich' läßt connection with dem Reflexivstamm *se-, *s(e)u̯e- to, compare with anlaut su̯-: aksl. svěně `besides, without' and lat. sēd, preposition `sine, without', Präf. `without, beiseite'.

References: WP. II 494 f., WH. II 542 f., H. Lewis EC. 1, 322.

Page(s): 907


Root / lemma: senk-

Meaning: to burn, dry

German meaning: `brennen, dörren'

Comments: only germ. and slav.

Material: Ags. sengan, mnd. mhd. sengen `singe' (*sangjan `brennen make'); nd. sangeren `in the Haut prickeln' (eig. `burn'), older ndl. sengel `spark', mhd. senge `Trockenheit, aridity ', sinc (-g-) `das Sengen', sungen, sunken `anbrennen', sungeln, sunkeln `knistern', norw. dial. sengra, sengla `brenzlich smell', schwed. dial. sjängla `singe', isl. sāng(u)r, n. sangt `versengt, angebrannt';

    aksl. prě-sǫèiti, isǫèiti `dry', sǫèilo `Ofen', russ. izsjaklyj `dry'.

References: WP. II 495.

Page(s): 907


Root / lemma: sen(o)-

Meaning: old

German meaning: `alt'

Material: Old Indian sána-, av. hana- `old', Old Indian sanaká- `ehemalig, old' (: lat. senex, fränk. Sinigus, gall.Seneca), sanaḥ `vor alters', sánā, sanā́t, sanátā `from alters her, from jeher, stets', sanātána- `ewig, unvergänglich, beständig'; arm. hanapaz `immer', hin `old'; gr. ἕνος `old, vom vorigen years', δί-ενος ` biennial ', ἕνη καὶ νέα `the day vor dem Neumond and the erste of beginnenden Monats'; lat. senex, Gen. senis, Kompar. senior `old, aged'; seneō, -ēre `old, weak sein', senēscō, -ere `altern, hinschwinden', sennium `Altersschwäche, zehrende Gemütsstimmung', senātus, -ūs (osk. Gen. senateís) `Senat', senectūs `age', seneciō ds.; air. sen `old', acymr. corn. bret. hen `senex', compounds air. siniu, cymr. hyn; ir. sen-māth(a)ir (= lit. sen-mótė) `grandmother'; gall. Seno-gnātus under likewise, Seneca; got. sineigs `πρεσβύτης', sinista `ältester', afränk. sini-skalkus `the oldest Hausdiener', aisl. sina `vorjähriges grass'; lit. sẽnas `old', sẽnis `Greis', seniaĩ `vor alters, längst', senė́ju `become old' (= lat. seneō).

References: WP. II 494, WH. II 513 f., Trautmann 256.

Page(s): 907-908


Root / lemma: sent-

Meaning: to take a direction, go; to feel

German meaning: `eine Richtung nehmen, gehen' and in geistigen Sinne `empfinden, wahrnehmen'

Material: A. in geistigen sense: lat. sentiō, -īre, -si, -sum `fühlen, empfiinden, wahrnehmen', sensus, -ūs `Gefühl, sense, mind, Gesinnung; opinion', sententia (*sentientia) `opinion etc'; ahd. sin, -nnes `sense, mind' (*sent-no-), sinnan `trachten, begehren', nhd. sinnen; lit. sintė́ti `denken'; aksl. sęštь `smart'.

Maybe zero grade alb. (*sentiō, entio) ndjej 'feel' [typical alb. mutation se- > e-]

    B. in eigentlichen sense: av. hant- (present hī-šasat̃, Fut. ni-šąsyā) `gelangen, gelangen lassen'; arm. ǝnt`ac̣ `way, Gang', ǝnt`anam `go, fare, journey, eile';

    air. sēt `way', cymr. hynt ds., mbret. nbret. hent ds. (= germ. *sinÞa-), abret. Gl. do-guo-hintiliat `inceduus', acorn. cam-hinsic Gl. `iniustus' (cam- `krumm'), eun-hinsic Gl. `justus' (eun- `gerecht'); therefrom air. sētig `wife, woman' (`Weggenossin', ī-Fem. eines Adj. *sētach); cymr. carrynt (to carr `Wagen') `way, journey', epynt (to eb-, *ek̂u̯o-) `Pferde-way', dyffrynt `valley' (to dwfr `water'); from *senti̯o-: mcymr. hennydd ` fellow ', bret. hantez `Nachbar', corn. hynsads.;

    got. sinÞs m. `Mal', aisl. sinn n. `Mal', sinni n. `Gang, journey' (and as Nachkomme eines*gasinÞja- also ` cortege, Unterstützung'), ags. sīð m. `Fahrt, journey, way, Mal', as. sīð `way, direction', ahd. sind `Gang, way, journey, Fahrt'; got. ga-sinÞa ` travelling companion ', aisl. sinni ds., ags. gesīÞ, as. gisīð, ahd. gisind ` fellow ', wherefore n. ags. gesīð `Begleitung', as. gesīthi, mnd. (ge)sinde `Gesinde', ahd. gisindi `Reisegefolge, kriegerisches cortege ', nhd. Gesinde, aisl. sinni n. ` cortege '; ahd. sinnan (see above) also `gehen, reisen, wandern, kommen'; Kaus. got.sandjan, aisl. senda, ags. sendan, ahd. senten `senden' (aisl. senda also `sacrifice'); *senÞōn Denom. from *senÞa- (see above) in aisl. sinna `reisen, sich worum kümmern, beachten', as. sīðōn `gehen, pull, drag, wandern', ags. sīðian ds., ahd. sindōn ds.;

    lit. siunèiù (*suntiù ass. to *siuntiù), sių̃sti, lett. sùtu, sùtît `senden, schicken' (balt. un Red.-stem on besides the Full grade from got. sandjan).

References: WP. II 496 f., Trautmann 292.

Page(s): 908


Root / lemma: sen-, sene-, sen(e)u-, senǝ-

Meaning: to prepare, work on, succeed

German meaning: `bereiten, ausarbeiten, vollenden, erzielen'

Material: Old Indian ásanam `I gewann', sanḗma `wir mögen gewinnen'; sanṓti `gewinnt', sanuká- `beutegierig', sánitar- `Gewinner, Sieger', participle sātá- `gewonnen', sātí- f. `Gewinnung, Erwerb'; gr. *ἄνῡμι, themat. ἀνύω, att. ἁνύω and hom. ἄνω (*ἄνFω) `vollende'; gr. ἀνύτω ds.; ἀανές οὐ τελεσθησόμενον Hes., ἰν ἀνάτοις ἐν ἀπορίαις Hes. (ἄν-ατος `unvollendet'); hom. ἐννεσί-εργος `ἔργα ἀνύων'; ἔναρα `die armament, armor of erschlagenen Gegners' (`*Kampfesbeute'); therefrom ἐναίρω, Aor. ἤναρον `in Kampfe slay', ἐναρίζω `dem getöteten Feinde die Rüstung disrobe; in Kampfe slay'; lak. ἐναρσφόρος `τὰ ἔναρα φέρων'; ἔντεα (Sg. ἔντος) `armament, armor'; next to which *ἐντύ̄ς `Zurüstung, consummation ' vorausgesetzt from ἐντύω, ἐντύ̄νω `make fertig, rüste to, bereite'; besides τὸ ἔντος steht συν-έντης συνεργός Hes. and αὐθέντης `*with eigener Hand vollbringend: murderer; master, mister';

    air. con-suī `seeks to erwerben, makes streitig', cymr. cynyddu `erobern, to gewinnen suchen' etc;

    hitt. šanḫ- `suchen, erstreben, arrogate'; also `fegen' (`*durchsuchen').

References: WP. II 493, Pedersen Hitt. 185.

Page(s): 906


Root / lemma: septm̥

Meaning: seven

German meaning: `sieben'

Material: Old Indian saptá, av. hapta, arm. evt`n, gr. ἑπτά, lat. septem, air. secht n-, cymr. etc saith, got. ahd. sibun, ags. seofon, anord. siau (-n preserved after einem besides *siƀun stehenden sibuni; t-loss in ordinals sep[t]m̥-tos dissimilatory erfolgt; in the case of septun the Lex. sal. still gesprochenes seftun or Latinisierung eines echten *sifun is, steht dahin), lit. septynì, aksl. sedmь (after dem ordinals), alb. shtatë (*s[e]ptm-ti-; Zahlabstraktbildung as Old Indian saptatí-, av. haptāiti- 70, aisl. siaund `number from 7'); toch. A ṣpät, В ṣuk(t); hitt. šipta.

    ordinals: sept(e)mos in Old Indian saptamá-, npers. haftum, gr. ἕβδομος, dial. ἕβδεμος (die Erweichung derives from einer form ἕβδμος, compare aksl. sedmь), lat. septimus, gall. sextametos, air. sechtm-ad, cymr. seithfed (*septem-etos), alit. sẽkmas, apr. sep(t)mas, aksl. sedmъ; *septm̥-to-s in Old Indiansaptáthaḥ, av. haptaϑa-, as. sivotho, ags. seofoða (also akzentuell = saptátaḥ; besides ahd. sibunto, as. sivondo, anord. siunde, siaunde), lit. septiñtas.

It seems that number seven in PIE was based on the Semitic numeric system:

Semitic

East: Akkadian+ sebe, Central: Arabic sab`ah, Saudi sab`a, Yemeni sab`ah, Syrian sab`a, Lebanese sab`a, Cypriot sába`, Iraqi sab`a, Egyptian sab`a, E Libyan 'sab`a, N African (Darja) seb`a, Moroccan seb`a, Sudanese sa|b`a, Nigerian saba, Zanzibari säba'a, Maltese sebgh=a, Phoenecian+ sh-b-`, Ugaritic+ s-b-'-t, Moabite+ sh-b-`-t, Classical Hebrew+ sheba`, Modern Hebrew sheva`, Classical Aramaic+ shi:Be`a:h, Modern Aramaic shub`a:, Classical Syriac+ shab`a:, Syriac shaw'a, Van shåvå, South: Old S. Arabian+  s-b-', South Arabian (Harsusi) ho:ba, (Sheri) sho:`, Socotra 'yhobe?, N Ethiopic : Geez+ seb`atu, Tigre sabu`, Beni Amir saba`, Tigrinya shob'atte, S Ethiopic : Amharic säbat, Argobba sa'int, Harari sa:tti, E Gurage sabt, Gafat+ säbattä, Soddo säbatt, Goggot säbätt, Muher säbät, Masqan säbät, CW Gurage säbat, Ennemor säB?at.

 

Indo-European

Germanic: Old Germanic+ *sibum, Western : Old English+ seofon, Middle English+ seven, English seven, Scots seiven, Old Frisian+ sigun, W.Frisian sân, Frisian (Saterland) sogen, Dutch zeven, W/S Flemish ze:vne, Brabants ze:ve, Low Saxon söven, Emsland ze:bm, Mennonite Plautdietsch säwen, Afrikaans sewe, German sieben, Central Bavarian simme, Swabian siibe, Alsatian seve, Cimbrian siban, Rimella shìbne, Rheinfränkisch siwe, Pennsylvania siwwe, Luxembourgeois siwen, Swiss German siebë, Yiddish zibn, Middle High German+ siben, Old High German+ sibun, Northern : Runic+ siu:, Old Norse+ sjau, Norwegian sju, Danish syv, Swedish sju, Faroese sjey, Old Icelandic+ siau, Icelandic sjö, Eastern : Gothic+ sibun, Crimean+ sevene, Italic: Oscan+ *seften, Umbrian+ , Faliscan+ *zepten, Latin+ septem, Romance : Mozarabic+ xebte, Portuguese sete, Galician sete, Spanish siete, Ladino sieti, Asturian siete, Aragonese siet, Catalan set, Valencian set, Old French+ set, French sept, Walloon set, Jèrriais sept, Poitevin sét, Old Picard+ siet, Picard siet, Occitan (Provençal) sèt, Lengadocian sèt, Gascon sèt, Auvergnat sé, Limosin se, Franco-Provençal (Vaudois) sat, Rumantsch Grischun set, Sursilvan siat, Vallader set, Friulian syet, Ladin set, Dalmatian+ sapto, Italian sette, Piedmontese sèt, Milanese sètt, Genovese sette, Venetian sete, Parmesan set, Corsican sette, Umbrian sétte, Neapolitan sèttë, Sicilian setti, Romanian s,apte, Arumanian s,apte, Meglenite s,apti, Istriot s,åpte, Sardinian sette, Celtic: Proto-Celtic+ septn, Gaulish+ sextan, Brythonic (P-Celtic) : Welsh saith, Cardiganshire soch, Breton seizh, Vannetais seih, Unified Cornish+ seyth, Common seyth, Modern sith, Devonian+ seith, Goidelic (Q-Celtic) : Old Irish+ secht, Irish seacht, Scots Gaelic seachd, Manx shiaght, Hellenic: Classical Greek+ heptá, Greek eftá, Cypriot eftá, Tsakonian eftá, Tocharian: Tocharian A+ late, Tocharian B+ sukt, Albanian: Albanian shtatë, Gheg (Qosaj)  shtat, Tosk (Mandritsa) shtátë, Armenian: +Classical Armenian evthn, Armenian yoth, Baltic West : Old Prussian+ *septi:njai, East : Lithuanian septynì, Latvian septini, Latgalian septeni, Slavic East : Russian semh, sem', Belarussian sem, sem, Ukrainian s--m., sim, West : Polish siedem, Kashubian sétmë, Polabian+ sidêm, Czech sedm, Slovak sedem, West sedem, East shedzem, Upper Sorbian sydom, Lower Sorbian sedym, South: Old Church Slavonic+ sedmi, Bulgarian sédem, Macedonian sedum, Serbo-Croat sëdam, Slovene sedem, Anatolian: Hittite+ shipta-, Indo-Iranian: Proto-Indo-Iranian+ *sapta, Iranian Eastern: Ossetian Iron avd, Digor avd, Avestan+ hapta, Khwarezmian+ 'bhd, Sogdian+ 'Bt

Yaghnobi avd, Bactrian+ Saka+ hauda, Pashto owé, Wakhi yb, Munji avde, Yidgha avdo, Ishkashmi uvd, Sanglechi haft, Shughn wu:vd, Rushani wu:vd, Yazgulami uvd, Sarikoli (Tashkorghani) üvd, Parachi ho:t, Ormuri ho:, Western Northwest : Parthian+ hft, Yazdi haf, Nayini Natanzi haft, Khunsari häft, Gazi häf, Sivandi häf, Vafsi haf, Semnani haf, Sangisari haft, Gilaki haf, Mazanderani haft, Talysh håft, Harzani Zaza hewt, Gorani hawt, Baluchi hept, Turkmenistan apt, E Hill hapt, Rakhshani (Western) (h)ept, Kermanji (S) Kurdish hawt, Zaza (N) Kurdish haft, Bajalani ha:ft, Kermanshahi häft, Southwest : Old Persian+ Pahlavi+ haft, Farsi haft, Isfahani haf, Tajik h=aft, Tati hæft, Chali haft, Fars häft, Lari 'aft, Luri haf, Kumzari haf'ta, Nuristani : Ashkun su:t, Wasi-weri sëtë, Kati sut, Kalasha-ala  so:t, Indic : Sanskrit+ saptá, Prakrit+ satta, Ardhamagadhi+ satta, Pali+ satta, Romany (Gypsy) : Spanish estér, Welsh trin t'a: shto:r, Kalderash yeftá, Syrian h.o:t, Armenian haft, Iranian efdá:, Sinhalese-Maldivian: Sinhalese hata, Vedda pahamay dekamay, Maldivian hate, Northern India:  Dardic: Kashmiri sat, Shina sât, Brokskat sa:t, Phalura sa:t, Bashkarik sat, Tirahi sat, Torwali sat, Wotapuri sat, Maiya sa:t, Kalasha sat, Khowar sot, Dameli sat, Gawar-bati set, Pashai sa:ta, Shumashti sa, Nangalami sat, Dumaki sot, Western: Marathi sat, Konkani sat, Sindhi sata, Khatri sat, Lahnda satt, Central: Hindi/ Urdu sa:t, Parya sat, Punjabi set, Siraiki sat, Gujarati sat, Rajasthani (Marwari) sa:t, Banjari (Lamani) saat, Malvi sa:t, Bhili xa:t, Dogri sat, Kumauni sa:t, Garhwali sa:t, W Pahari sa:t, Khandeshi sa:t, East Central: Nepali sa:t, Maithili sa:t, Magahi sat, Bhojpuri sa:t, Awadhi (Kosali) sa:t, Chattisgarhi sa:t, Eastern: Oriya saat, Bengali sat, Assamese xat, Mayang ha:d.

Dravidian

Northwest : Brahui haft, Northeast : Kurukh satte:, Malto sa:te, Central : Kolami sa.t, Telugu eedu, Gondi e:ru:ng, Koya e:du, Konda e:ru, Pengo sat, Kui odgi, Kuvi sa:ta, South : Tulu e:l, Koraga eli, Kannada eeLu, Badaga iyyu, Kodagu ye:lü, Kurumba -ö.lu, Toda öw, Kota ye:ye, Tamil aezhu, Malayalam e:lu, Irula elu

Nahali

Nahali sato

Basque

Basque zazpi

Etruscan

Etruscan+ semph

Hurrian

Hurrian+ shindia

 

References: WP. II 487.

Page(s): 909


Root / lemma: sep-

Meaning: to care of smth.; to honour

German meaning: `sich with etwas abgeben, in Ehren halten'

Material: Old Indian sápati `liebkost, umwirbt, pflegt, betreibt', av. hap- (2. 3. Sg. hafšī, haptī) `(in the Hand)halten, stützen'; gr. -ἕπω (with ἀμφι-, δι-, ἐφ-, μεθ-, περι-), Aor. ἐπ--σπον, -σπεῖν `besorge, bereite, bearbeite'; ὅπλον n. `tool, appliance, weapon', ὁπλέω `schirre an', ὅπλομαι `bereite mir to' etc;

    in addition idg. *sepeli̯ō in Old Indian saparyáti `veneratur', lat. sepeliō -īre, sepultum `bury' i.e. `venerari sepulcro'.

References: WP. II 487, WH. II 517, Benveniste Origines 1, 47.

Page(s): 909


Root / lemma: serk-

Meaning: hedge, to fence

German meaning: `Flechtwerk, einhegen'?

Material: Gr. ἕρκος n. ` paddock, corral, pen, fold, fence, Wall; Schlinge, Fangnetz', ὁρκάνη `Umzäunung', ὅρκος m., ὅρκιον `oath';

    lat. sarciō, -īre `flicken, ausbessern, wiederherstellen', sarctus tectus from einem house `geflochten and gedeckt, i.e. vollständig', sarcina `bundle, Pack, tragbares Gepäck', sartor `Flickschneider', umbr. sarsite `*sarcītē'; hitt. šar-nin-k- `ersetzen, entschädigen'.

References: WP. II 502, WH. 478 f.

Page(s): 912


Root / lemma: ser-1

Meaning: to flow

German meaning: `strömen, sich rasch and heftig bewegen'

Material: Old Indian sísarti, sárati ` flows, hurries, jagt wornach, verfolgt'; fut. sariṣyáti, Desiderativ sisīrṣati from einer heavy basis *serǝ-, compare hom. ῥώομαι `bewege mich quick, fast, strong, stürme an, eile' from *srō-i̯ō; ein root nouns *sr̥ǝ, in addition Old Indian *sī́r, *sĭráḥ, is die base of ā-stem Old Indian sirā́ and sīrā́ `Rinnsal, stream'; Old Indian sarít f. `stream, brook, river', saraṇa- `laufend', sa-sr-á- `strömend', sá-sr-i- `laufend, hurrying'; saráyu-, sarayū- m. `name eines Flusses', ар. Haraiva-, av. (Akk.)Harōyūm, np. Harē `river and region from Herāt';

    Old Indian sárma- m. `das Fließen', gr. ὁρμή `Anlauf, attack, Drang after etwas', whereof ὁρμάω `treibe an, rege an', intr. `stürme hence, worauf los'; in addition ὅρμενον `Salbei' as `die Anreizende', s. Strömberg, Gr. Pflanzennamen 93; αἱρέω `ergreife' instead of *αἵρω (*seri̯ō) durch influence ofἀγρέω ds.;

    Old Indian sará- `flüssig', sarā́ `river, stream, brook', gr. ὀρός, lat. serum `the wässerige Teil the geronnenen milk, Molke'; perhaps alb. gjizë (*ser-di̯ā) `gelabte milk, cheese';

    thrak. PN Germi-sera `Warmwasser', FlN Σέρμιος; frz. la Sermane (*Sermanna), oberital. Sermenza (*Sermentia), ven. PN Sirmiō (*Sermiō), pannon. PN Sirmium, poln. (ven.) PN Śrem (*Sermo-); illyr. FlN Sarnus (Kampanien); gall. (ven.-illyr.) FlN Sara (*Se), Sarāvus `die Saar'; Sar- bildet viele FlN in the Lombardei, Switzerland and Frankreich, also Appellativa (Mantua sariöl `stream, brook' etc); cymr. FlN Sôr (*Sorā); sor- also in den FlN apr. Sar-ape, lit.-poln. Szar-upa, lett. Sarija;

    mir. sirid (*serīti) `durchwandert, sucht heim, plündert, verlangt', Verbalnomen siriud; cymr. herw (*ser-u̯o-) `Landstreicherei', mir. serb `Diebstahl';

    lit. apsirti `umzingeln', lett. sirt `umherschwärmen, Raubzüge make', sira (compare Old Indian sirā) `Umherstreifer, Bettler'.

References: WP. II 497 f., WH. II 525, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 7271; in addition sreu- `flow', after E. Fraenkel Gl. 32, 33 here gr. ῥέθεα `Nasenlöcher, nose', ῥόθος `Wogenschwall', as well as ῥίς, ῥῑνός `nose' as `die Triefende'.

Page(s): 909-910


Root / lemma: ser-2

Meaning: to guard, watch over, support

German meaning: `sorgend Obacht geben, schützen, bewahren'

Material: Av. haraiti `hat acht, schützt'; haurvaiti ds., haurva- `beschützend, hütend' in pasuš-haurvō spā `die Schafe beschützender Hund, Schäferhund' (as lat. servō from einer u-extension); harǝtar- `Hüter, Wächter', harǝϑra- `nourishment, care, cultivation, Wartung'; hāra- `achthabend, hütend', redupl. hišāra- ds.;

    gr. ῝Ηρα `*Schützerin' from * ῝ΗρFα, ἥρως, -ωος (stem ἡρωF-, see above) `*Hüter' (ἥρωες `Landesschutzgeister'), `hervorragender, mächtiger man'; servō, -āre `(den Wächter machen) erretten, receive, unversehrt bewahren', osk. serevkid `auspicio, iussu'; umbr. seritu `servato', anseriato Supin. `observatum' compare ooserclom perhaps `*observaculum' from *ser-tlom;

    unclear are aksl. chranjǫ, chraniti `look after, watch over, keep, preserve, protect', chrana `dish, food, nourishment, food' etc (see Berneker 397 f.); compare Machek Slavia 16, 191 f.;

    as guttural extension here lit. sérg-mi, -u, -iu `behüte, bewache', sárgas `Wächter', sargùs `watchful, wakeful', apr. but-sargs `Haushälter', absergīsnan Akk. ` protection'.

References: WP. II 498 f., WH. II 525 f., Trautmann 257 f.

Page(s): 910


Root / lemma: ser-3, sor-

Meaning: red

German meaning: `rot, rötlich'

Material: Old Indian perhaps in sā́ra- m. n. `Mark eines Baumes (compare lat. rōbur ` heartwood '), Festigkeit, power '; with formants -to- lit. sar̃̃tas `fuchsig (from horses'), lett. sârts `red in face'; with formants-bho- lat. sorbum `die rote berry of Sperber-, Vogelbeerbaumes', sorbus `this tree'; schwed.sarf `Rotauge'; russ. sorobalina `Hagebutte, Brombeere', lit. serbentà, serbeñtas `Johannisbeere' (ass. from *sarbentà?); with formants -g(h)o- russ. soróga `Rotauge, Plötze';

    with -k- lett. sarks `reddish';

    with -m- lit. sarmóties `sich schämen';

    with -p- lit. serpės Pl. `ein gelbes Färberkraut, Serratula tinctoria', sirpstù, sirpaũ, sir̃pti `reif become' (only from Beeren and Steinfrüchten, also eig. `yellow or reddish become').

References: WP. II 499, WH. II 562, Specht Idg. Dekl. 267.

Page(s): 910-911


Root / lemma: ser-4

Meaning: to put together, bind together

German meaning: `aneinander reihen, knüpfen'

Material: Old Indian sarat-, sarit- ` filament ' (uncovered), perhaps saṭā `lichen, Mähne, bristle';

    gr. εἴρω (*seri̯ō) `reihe aneinander' (hom. only participle Perf. ἐερμένος, 3. Sg. Plusqpf. ἔερτο), ἐνείρω `knüpfe an, reihe an' (: lat. in-serō `füge ein'), ἔνερσις `das Hineinfügen, Hineinstecken' (: lat. insertiō; ti-stem also in praesertim `in erster Reihe, vorzugsweise'), ἕρμα n. `Ohrgehänge', ὅρμος m. `Halskette', ὁρμίᾱ f. `fishing line', ὁρμαθός m. `row, Kette', presumably also εἴρερον `in Gefangenschaft';

    lat. serō, -ere, -tum `fügen, reihen, knüpfen', seriēs `Reihenfolge, Kette, row', serīlia `Seile', sors `lot, fate' (probably vom Aufreihen the Lose); sera `as bar, bolt vorgelegter crossbar, crossbeam' (?); osk. aserum `asserere'; air. sernaid `reiht an, ordnet an', Konjunktiv seraid, Verbalnomen sreth (*sr̥tā) `Ausbreiten, row' etc kann also *ster- and *sper- contain; got. sarwa n. Pl. `armament, armor, weapons ' (probably `geknoteter, geknüpfter Harnisch', compare lat. sertae loricae), aisl. sørvi n. `kostbares, collar, neckband', ahd. as. saro `armament, armor', ags. searu `armament, armor'; also `Kunstfertigkeit, artifice', as sierwan `insidiari, planen';

    alit. sėris ` filament, Pechdraht'; hitt. šarra- `break, rupture, divide' (?).

    Ein with unserem ser- ursprungsgleiches ser- for `geschlechtlichen Verkehr; wife, woman' seeks man in aisl. serða st. V. `Unzucht drive, push', sorðenn and stroðenn `muliebria passus' (ags. seorðan is nord. Lw.), ahd. sertan `geschlechtlichen Umgang haben', cymr. serth `obscenus', serthedd `obscena locutio'; if ir. serc `love', bret. serc'h `Kebsweib' anzureihen is, is ein westidg. ser- `geschlechtlich verkehren' anzuerkennen; about unsicheres idg. *sor- `wife, woman' s. M. Mayrhofer by Brandenstein, Studien 32 ff.

References: WP. II 499 f., WH. II 52 f., Pedersen Hitt. 118.

Page(s): 911


Root / lemma: ser-5, extended serp-

Meaning: sickle

German meaning: `Sichel, krummer Haken'; verbal (only in Lat.) `sicheln, with einem gekrümmten Haken bearbeiten'

Material: Old Indian sr̥ṇī́ f. `sickle', sŕ̥ṇya- `sichelförmig', sr̥ṇi- m. `Haken zum Antreiben of Elefanten'; lat. sariō, -īre `die Saat behacken, jäten' (*seri̯ō), sarculum `Jäthacke' (*sar-tlom).

Maybe alb. harr 'to weed' similar to lat. sarrio (sario) -ire -ui and -ivi `to hoe, weed'. [common alb. s > h shift]; alb. seems to have preserved the old laryngeal.

    With p-extension:

    Gr. ἅρπη `sickle' and `ein Raubvogel', ἁρπάζω `raffe, raube, plündere', ἁρπαγή f. `Plünderung', ἁρπάγη f. `Harke', ἅρπαξ, -αγος `räuberisch, gierig';

    lat. sarpiō and sarpō, -ere, -si, -tum `beschneiteln, abschneiteln', sarmen (*sarp-men), sarmentum `abgeschneiteltes Reis, deadwood'; ahd. sarf, mhd. sarph `sharp, rough, from herbem, zusammenziehendem Geschmacke, cruel, savage, wild'; aksl. srъpъ, russ. serpъ `sickle', lett. sirpis `sickle'.

References: WP. II 500 ff., WH. II 470 f., Trautmann 261 f.; J. Gonda Mnemosyne 6, 153 ff.

Page(s): 911-912


Root / lemma: serp-

Meaning: to crawl, *snake

German meaning: `kriechen'

Note:

From a zero grade of Root / lemma: angʷ(h)i- : `snake, worm' derived illyr. *nsala `eel' [later alb. (*encheleae > *ensala) ngjalë `eel'], then from the intermediary illyr. root *nsala `eel' derived Root / lemma: sal- : `salt; salty water' and Root / lemma: sal-2 : `dirty grey; salt, saliva, willow'.

Also from illyr. PN Salapia (Apulia) to FlN *Sal-apa `salty water' [sala `salt' + *apa `water'] derived an intermediary root *salpa- `sea snake' then Root / lemma: serp- : `to crawl, snake'.

Material: Old Indian sárpati `slinks, crawls, goes' (= ἕρπω, lat. serpō), sarpá- m. `snake'; gr. ἕρπω `slink, go', ἑρπύζω `slink, crawl, creep', ἑρπετόν `crawling animal', ablaut. lesb. ὄρπετον `animal' (*sr̥p-), ἕρπης, -τος `lichen an the skin', ἕρπυλλον ` thyme ' (latinisiert serpullum); alb. gjarpën `snake' (*serpeno-), shtërpínj `all Kriechende'; lat. serpō `crawl, creep, slink', serpēns `snake'.

 

References: WP. II 502, WH. II 524.

Page(s): 912


Root / lemma: seug-

Meaning: sad, grievous; ill

German meaning: `bekümmert, traurig, gekränkt, krank'

Material: Arm. hiucanim `sieche hin'; mir. socht m. (*sug-to-) `Schweigen, Depression';

    got. siuks `krank', aisl. sjūkr `krank, grieving ', ags. sēoc (engl. sick), as. siok ds., ahd. siuh, sioh, mhd. siech `krank, freudlos'; got. siukan `siechen, krank sein'; abstract noun got. siukei, ahd. siuhhī, mhd. siuche `Seuche'; mhd. sochen (*sukēn) `siechen, kränkeln', aisl. sokna `krank become'; got. saúhts `Sucht, disease, malady, Kränklichkeit' (*sug-ti-), aisl. sōtt `disease, malady', ahd. suht `disease, malady', nhd. (Schwind)sucht, Sucht (hier meaning-influence of suchen); ags. sȳsl n. f. (*sūh-sla-) `Pein', sēoslig (*seuh-sla-) `gepeinigt', aisl. sȳsl, sȳsla `Tätigkeit, Amt, Amtsbezirk (from the durch Pflichtarbeit ausgelösten Unlust)', sȳsl Adj. `eifrig bemüht, sorgsam' (*sūsli-R).

References: WP. II 472 f.

Page(s): 915


Root / lemma: seu-1, seʷǝ- : sū-

Meaning: juice; liquid, *rain

German meaning: `Saft, Feuchtes'; verbal: `Saft ausdrücken' and `regnen; rinnen', in Weiterbildungen `(Saft) schlürfen, saugen'

Material: 1. Gr. ὕει ` it is raining ', ὕω ` allows to rain ' (*sū-i̯ō), ὑετός `heavy rain' (*suu̯-etos, as νῐφετός); alb. shi `rain' (*sū-); toch. В swese `rain', sū-, swās- `rain'; to ὕει perhaps ὕθλος (ὕσθλος, ὕσλος Gramm.) m. `empty gossip' (as though ` letting drip monotonously ');

Note:

The old laryngeal became a sibilant in satem languages : *heu- > seu-. Illyr. Savus (*Sou̯os) displays the same satem characteristics as alb. The definitife forms are older than reduced indefinite forms in alb.; hence alb. shiu `rain' derived from (*sū-i);

    2. Old Indian sunṓti ` squeezes, presses ' = av. hunaoiti ds.; Old Indian sávana-m, savá- m. ` Kelterung des Soma ', sutá- ` pressed ', sṓma- = av. hauma- m. `Soma'; ahd. sou, ags. séaw `juice, sap', isl. söggr `humid, wet' (*sawwia-); air. suth `juice, sap, milk' (*sŭ-tu-s); here probably also die FlN gall. Save, Savara, -ia and (illyr.) Savus (*Sou̯os).

Note:

Old Indian sávana-m, savá- m. ` Kelterung des Soma ' : illyr. Savus prove the satem nature of illyr.-alb. Yet illyr. displays often centum characteristics, hence proto illyr. was the bridge between satem and centum languages.

Maybe alb.-tosk. gjär `soup' (*i̯ō-no-), geg. gjanë `smut, pond, pool, watering-place ' : Old Indian sū́pa- m. `broth, soup'.

Maybe alb. cognate derived from Root / lemma: seu-1, seʷǝ- : sū- : `juice; liquid, *rain, soup' not from Root / lemma: i̯eu-1 : `to mix (of meal preparation)' because of the common alb. s- > gj- phonetic mutation.

    3. seu-d- in ags. be-sūtian `smudge', westfäl. sot ` filth '; aisl. sut ` care, sorrow ', sȳta ` grieve '.

    4. Guttural extension: seuk-, sū̆k- and seug-, sū̆g-:

    Lat. sūgō, -ere `suck'; lat. sūcus `juice, sap', cymr. sugno, mbret. sunaff, nbret. suna ds., sun `juice, sap', cymr. sugnedydd `pump' (*seuk-n-; cymr. g from dem lat. Lw. sug `juice, sap'), acymr. dissuncgnetic ` exhaust, suffer through, endure ' (morphologically difficult group); ags. sūcan, ndl. zuiken `suck'; ags. socian (*sukōn) ` steep, absorb, suck ', gesoc n. `the sucking', aisl. sūga (sjūga) `suck', sog n. ` the sucking ', ags. as. ahd. sūgan `suck', Kaus. norw. dial. søygja, mhd. söugen ` suckle ', mhd. suc, soc, g. soges and souc, -ges `juice, sap', ags. sogeða m. `gulp'; lett. sùkt `suck'; apr. suge f. `rain'.

Maybe alb. shushunjë `leech, bloodsucker' : lat. sanguisuga [sangui `blood + suga `sucker'].

    5. l-formant: gr. ὕλη `ordure, slime, mud', ὑλίζω `filter, clean'; Old Indian sūra- m. `intoxicating potion'; súrā `alcohol', av. hurā `Kumys' (wogul. sara, syrj. sur from Iranian) = lit. lett. sulà ` abfließender Baumsaft ' (with ū lett. sūlât ` siepen '), apr. sulo ` coagulated milk'; ags. sol n. `slime, mud, puddle, slop', ahd. mnd. sol ds., ags. sylian `smudge', as. sulwian, ahd. sullen ds., nhd. sühlen, suhlen ` sich im Kot wälzen '; got. bi-sauljan ` blemish ', norw. søyla ds.

    6. seup-, seub-: Old Indian sū́pa- m. `broth, soup'; aisl. sūpa, ags. sūpan, ahd. sūfan ` slurp, drink, swig ', sūf `broth, soup', mhd. suf, sof `soup', ags. sype m. ` soaking up ', aisl.sopi m., ags. sopa `gulp', full grade ahd. souf `soup', aisl. saup n. ` buttermilk '; ags. sopp f. ` sop ', mnd. (out of it mhd.) soppe, suppe `sop', ahd. sopha, soffa ` broth, also with soaked slices; settlings '; got. supōn ` spice ' = ahd. soffōn ds. (eig. ` dunk into broth '); mhd. sūft m., mnd. sucht `sigh', ahd. sūft(e)ōn, mhd. siuften, siufzen `sigh'; aisl. ags. sufl n. ` Zukost ', as. suval, ahd. suvil(i), -a ` sorbiuncula '; mnd. sūvel, ndl. zuivel ` der Buttergehalt der Milch ';

Maybe turk. (*sū-) su `water, aqua, juice'

shëroj;

    aksl. sъs-ǫ, -ati, Iter. sysati `suck' probably from *sup-s-.

alb. sisë, thithë `teat', thith (*sis-) `suck' [common alb. s- > th- phonetic mutation]

References: WP. II 468 f., WH. II 622 f., Trautmann 257, 291 f.

Page(s): 912-913


Root / lemma: seu-2, (seu̯ǝ-), sū̆-

Meaning: to bear child; son

German meaning: `gebären'

Material: Old Indian sū́tē (sāuti), sūyatē (sūyati), savati `gebiert, zeugt', sū́ḥ `Erzeuger', sū́tu- m. `Schwangerschaft' (: *sūtu-s in air. suth), sutá- m. `son'; sūtí- `birth, progeny ', súṣuti- f. `leichtes parturition'; av. hav- (hunāmi) ` to give birth to children, Kinder zur Welt bringen', hazaŋrō-hunā `eine, die 1000 Kinder zur Welt bringt'; air. suth (*sutu-s) `birth, fruit'; cymr. hog-en `girl' (*sukā), in addition hog-yn `Bursche'; due to the Präsentien *sū̆nāmi (compare av. hunāmi) and *sŭi̯ṓ (compare Old Indian sūyatē): idg. *sū̆nú-s and *sui̯ú-s originally `*das parturition, birth', then `Leibesfrucht, son';

    Old Indian sūnú- m.; av. hunu-š; got. sunus, aisl. sunr, ahd. ags. sunu; lit. sūnùs; aksl. synъ `son';

    gr. υἱύς (Gen. hom. υἱέος) and (secondary) υἱός `son' (in addition hom. υἱωνός `Enkel' from *sui̯ō[u]-nó-s), as proto idg. formation erwiesen durch tochar. В soyä (A se) `son' and das after dustr `daughter' umgebildete arm. ustr `son'; also ags. suhterga `Enkel, Neffe' kann eine entsprechende reshuffling after Tochter sein.

    In ital.-kelt. Gebiete fehlen diese words for `son'.

Maybe alb. (*tsun) çun `son'.

References: WP. II 469 f., Trautmann 292.

Page(s): 913-914


Root / lemma: seu-3 : su- : seu̯ǝ- : sū-

Meaning: to bend, turn

German meaning: `biegen, drehen, antreiben'

Material: Old Indian suváti ` places in Bewegung, erregt, belebt', sutá- `veranlaßt, angetrieben', prá-sūta- `in Bewegung gebracht, angetrieben, entsendet', nr̥-sūta- `from Männern angetrieben', prá-sūti- `Regung', savá- `Antrieb, Anregung, command, order, Belebung; the Anreger, Befehlende', sávīmani Lok. `auf Antrieb, auf Geheiß', savitár- `Antreiber, Erreger; the god Savitar';

    av. hav- `in Bewegung place', hunāiti `verschafft, seeks to verschaffen', hvąnmahi (*su̯-en-) `wir suchen to verschaffen'. apavanvainti (*su̯-en--) `sie lenken ab', mainyu-šūta- `vom Geist getrieben', hvōišta- `the höchste, beste; oldest';

    air. (a)id `dreht, kehrt' (*sōu̯-ei̯e-ti), ess-ro-so- `mißlingen' (*hinwegdrehen); sua(i)nem m. `rope, cord' (*seu-n-i̯a-mō); lit. siaũras (*seu-ro-) `schmal, eng';

    hitt. šuu̯āi- `bump, poke, urge, press, push'.

    seu-k-: osset. xurx `wheys, Käsewasser' (ar. *sukra-: lit. sukrùs `*was sich leicht dreht'); lit. sunkalai Pl. `wheys', pã-sukos ds.; lit. sukù, sùkti `turn, wenden', sukrùs `movable, nimble, flink', apsùkalas `Türangel', lett. sukt ` escape; to get away ', sukata `Drehkrankheit', slav. *sъkǫ, *sъkati (preterit-stem *sukā-) in russ. sku, skatъ `zwirnen, zusammendrehen, aufwickeln', ablaut. ksl. sukati `turn' (reshaped from *soukei̯e-, compare russ. suèítь `zwirnen');

   

References: WP. II 470, Trautmann 291, Lidén KZ 61, 7 f., Pedersen Hitt. 134.

See also: s. also seu̯i̯o- `link' and su̯ei- `bend'.

Page(s): 914


Root / lemma: seu-4, seu-t-

Meaning: to boil, move vividly

German meaning: `sieden, heftig bewegt sein'

Material: Av. hāvayąn `sie schmoren', hāvayeiti `er schmort' (3. Sg. Opt. huyārǝš - Old Indian *suyúr to einem present *haoiti after the Wurzelklasse);

    in addition germ. *sauÞ- in aisl. sjóða `simmer, seethe, boil, cook', ags. séoðan (engl. seethe) ds., ahd. siodan, mhd. nhd. sieden, aisl. seyð `brausendes water', seyðir `Kochfeuer'; got. sauÞs ` sacrificial animal ', aisl. sauðr `sheep, also anderes small cattle'; aschwed. sauÞn `Sprudelquelle'; germ. *suÞa- in soð n. `Fleischsuppe, broth';

    lit. siauèiù siaũsti `( corn, grain) winnow, fan, die chaff vom corn, grain segregate; play; rasen, wüten', siuntù, siùsti `toll become'; besides also die meaning `hit' in žem. siũtis ` shove ', lett. šàust `geißeln'; compare also lit. saũbti `rage, clamor, rasen', šaũbti `umhertoben', alit. siaubti `prank pull '; lett. šaulis m. `gate';

maybe alb. (*ši-) shij `thresh, winnow'.

    russ. šuèú, šutítь `spaßen, scherzen', šut (Gen. šutá) m. ` merrymaker, buffoon ', slov. šutec `fool'.

References: WP. II 471 f., Trautmann 260.

Page(s): 914-915


Root / lemma: seu̯ǝ-, sū-

Meaning: to let, leave (?)

German meaning: `(loslassen?) nachlassen, lassen'?

Material: Gr. ἐάω `lasse' (*Fάω), ἔβασον ἕασον. Συρακούσιοι, εὖα = ἔα Hes., Fut. ἐά̄σω, Aor. ἔιᾱσα (to *ἐῖα); zero grade ahd. vir-sūmen, nhd. säumen, ver-säumen (wäre denominative eines *sū-mó-s `nachlassend, säumend').

References: WP. II 472, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 682, 752.

Page(s): 915


Root / lemma: seu̯i̯o-

Meaning: left

German meaning: `link'

Material: Old Indian savyá-, av. haoya- `link', aksl. šujь, f. šuja ds.

References: WP. II 472, Trautmann 260;

See also: perhaps as `gekrümmt' to seu-3 (compare lat. laevus above S. 652).

Page(s): 915


Root / lemma: se-

Meaning: reflexive pronoun

German meaning: ursprünglich `abseits, getrennt, for sich', dann Reflexivpronomen

Comments: and (after analogy from *t(e)u̯e) s(e)u̯e-

Material: se- and s(e)u̯e- Reflexivpronomen for alle Personen, Geschlechter uud Numeri; Gen. seu̯e, Dat. sebhei, enklit. Gen.-Dat. s(u̯)oi; adjektivisches Possessiv s(e)u̯o-; se-: se-u̯e- flektiert as te-: te-u̯e `du'.

    1. se-: gr. σφέ, σφίν etc, poss. σφός, derive  from *σ-φει, σ-φι(ν), die as σφ-ει, σφ-ι(ν) aufgefaßt wurden;

    lat. sibī, , päl. sefei, osk. sífeí `sibi' (*sebhei), siom `se' (umbr. seso `sibi' from sei-psō `sibi ipsī?'), got. sik, ahd. sih, anord. sik `sich' (*se-ghe), got. sis, aisl. sēr Dat., Poss. got. seins, ahd. sīn etc `sein' (auf dem Lok. *sei beruhendes *sei-no-s); compare messap.veinan `suam' from *su̯ei-nā-m; apr. sebbei Dat.. sien Akk., aksl. sebě Dat., sę Akk. `sibi, se'.

    2. seu̯e-, *su̯e-: Old Indian Poss. svá- `suus', av. hva-, x ̌a-, ар. huva- `eigen, suus' and zero grade av. hava- ds.; av. Dat. Abl. hvāvōya i.e. iran. *hu̯abya `sibi, se', x ̌āi `sibi';

    arm. in-k`n, Gen. in-k`ean, `selbst' (k` from su̯), perhaps iur `sui, sibi', (*seu̯ero- or*seu̯oro-);

    gr. (pamph. Fhε) `sich' from *su̯e, hom. ἑέ from *seu̯e, Gen. hom. ἕο, εἷο, εὑ, εὗ, att. οὗ (*suesi̯o), Dat. οἷ, οἱ, lesb. Fοῖ (*su̯oi) besides hom. ἑοῖ (*seu̯oi), Poss. ὅς, dor. Fός `sein' (*su̯os) besides hom. ἑός (*seu̯os), wherefore ἧλιξ (*su̯ā-li-k-) `gleichalterig, fellow ';

    alb. ve-të (*su̯e-ti-) `selbst', u- Pron. refl. (*su̯ë-), vajë `girl' (*vari̯ā to *su̯o-ro- `Angehöriger'), vëla `Bruder' (see above S. 685);

    alat. sovos, from which in schwachtoniger position suos, lat. suus; osk. suveís `sui' (Gen.), súvad `suā', päl. suois `suis', marr. suam `suam', next to which zero grade umbr. sue-so Lok. Sg. `suō'; lat. sē̆d, sē̆ preposition `without', prefix `beiseite' basic meaning `for sich, without' (Abl. *s(u̯)ed), Konjunktion `but, however'; in addition gr. ἴδιος `privat, eigen', argiv. *Fhεδιος from idg. *su̯ed-i̯os;

    got. swēs `eigen', n. `property', ahd. as. swās, ags. swǣs, aisl. svāss `lieb, traut' (as *su̯ēdh-so- or -to- zur root *su̯edh-, see under; mndl. swāselinc `father-in-law, son-in-law, Schwager'; to ahd. gi-swīo (see under) the VN Suīonēs by Tacitus, aisl. Svīar m. Pl. `Schweden', svī-dāi `from selbst gestorben (not getötet)', lengthened grade svē-vīss `eigensinnig', got. swi-kunÞs `apparent, manifest, obvious';

    lit. savę̃s, sevę̃s `sui' (Gen.) etc, Poss. sãvas; zero grade apr. swais = aksl. svojь `suus, eigen'; out of it swojakъ `affinis', etc

    3. s(u̯)e-bh(o)-, su̯o-bho- `from eigener kind of': Old Indian sabhā́ `congregation, meeting, Gemeindehaus' (less good above S. 105); got. sibja, ahd. sipp(e)a etc `family, Gesamtheit the eigenen Leute' (*seƀjō); germ. *seƀnō- and *seƀnan- `family' in aisl. sjafni m. `love', GN sjǫfn f., VN *Seƀnan-ez >Semnones `Sippegenossen; in addition the VN lat. Sabīnī as `die Sippenangehörigen', Sabelli (*safnolo-), Samnium = osk. Safinim; lat. Samnītes; perhaps ein from den in Italien wohnhaften Illyriern bezogener name with a from idg. o, compare slav. sob-; in addition lengthened grade die germ. Suēbi, ahd. Swābā `Schwaben' (germ. *swēba-, idg. *su̯ēbho- `free, zum eigenen Volk gehörig'); russ. (etc) o-soba `person', sobь `Eigenart, character', aksl. sobьstvo `Eigenart, entity', and with su̯- aksl. svoboda `Freiheit' (originally `state, status the Sippenangehörigen'); zero grade seems apr. subs `selbst'; quite doubtful with e slav. *sebrъ in russ. pá-serbъ `Stiefsohn' and (?) dem names the Serben and Sorben; with still klärungsbedürftiger nasalization *sębrъ in aserb. sebrь `free Baner', russ. sjabr `Nachbar, friend'; compare Vasmer 2, 599, 611 f., 3, 61 f.

    4. su̯ē̆dh-: Old Indian svadhā́ `Eigenart, Gewohnheit, custom, Heimstätte', (av. x ̌aδāta- `about sich selbst bestimmend, unvergänglich' is neuere Zusammensetzung); gr. ἔθος n. `Gewohnheit, custom' (thematic βεσόν ἔθος Hes., lakonisch), participle hom. ἔθων `gewohnt', Perf. εἴωθα, lesb. εὔωθα `bin gewohnt' (*sesu̯ōdha), ἐθίζω `gewöhne', lengthened grade ἦθος n. `custom, Gebrauch, Herkommen', Pl. `domicile' (: germ. *swēsa-, if from *su̯ēdh-s-o-, see above), ἠθεῖος `traut', ἔθνος `bulk, mass, Völkerschaft' as `family'?;

    lat. sodālis (*su̯edhālis) `Kamerad, Gespiele, fellow, Tischgenosse'; soleō `bin gewohnt', with l for *dh; suēscō `werde gewöhnt' (*suēdh-skō);

    but got. sidus `custom', ahd. situ, ags. sidu, seodu, aisl. siðr, Akk. Pl. siðu m. `custom' (previously nhd. fem.) not here, da sie i in the root syllable haben (Wissmann, Münchner Studien 6, 129, Anm. 28).

    5. t- derivatives: av. x ̌aē-tu- `angehörig', x ̌aē-tāt- `Angehörigkeit, affiliation' (due to eines Lok. *su̯ei-, su̯oi-); aksl. svatъ `kinsman, relative, Angehöriger, Brautwerber', (*su̯ō-to-s, compare serb. svāk `Schwestermann', aksl. svojakъ `affinis'); lit. svẽèias, svẽtis `guest' (actually `foreigner, stranger'; because of svẽtimas `fremd', lett. svešs `fremd; guest', from *su̯e-ti̯os `for sich, allein stehend, hence außerhalb stehend'; compare lett. sevišks `abgesondert, allein' and gr. ἑκάς (Hes. βεκάς), eigentl. *Fhε-κάς `for sich', compare ἀνδρα-κάς `man for man' and Old Indiandviśas `to zweien'; gr. ἕκαστος (*ἑκασ-στος `for sich stehend') `ein jeder', thereafter ἑκάτερος, delph. Fεκάτερος `jeder from zweien'; hom. ἔτης (Fέτης) `kinsman, relative, friend', el. Fέτας `Privatmann'.

    With anlaut *se- (not *su̯e): aksl. *sětъ `guest', posětiti `besuchen'; gr. ἕταρος ` fellow ', fem. *ἕταιρα, ἑταίρᾱ, wherefore as neues m. ἕταιρος.

    6. Andere Zugehörigkeits- and Verwandtschaftsbezeichnungen (compare under eigenen Schlagworten *su̯elio[n]-, su̯esor-, su̯ek̂uro-s, suek̂rū-) are:

    aisl. sveinn `Bursche, herdsman, shepherd', as. swēn `Schweinehirt' (Bedeutungsanschluß an swīn `swine'), ags. swān `Schweinehirt, herdsman, shepherd', poet. `man, warrior'; lit. sváinis (*su̯oini̯os) `of Weibes Schwestermann', sváinė `die Schwester the wife, woman', lett. svainis `Bruder the wife, woman'; ahd. (ge)swīo `Schwager, Schwestermann', mhd. geswīe m. f. `Schwager, Schwägerin', aisl. sveit f. `Kriegerschar';

    7. Auf einer connection from *se- with dem Pron. *(o)lo- beruhendes *se-lo- seems (?) die base from germ. *selba- `selbst' (-bho- as above in *s(u̯)ebho-), got. silba, anord. sjálfr, ags. self, ahd. selb, nhd. selb, -er, -st in addition ven. sselboi sselboi `sibi ipsi' (= ahd. selb selbo); compare also germ. *selda- `seldom', got. silda-leiks `wundersam' (`from seltener, seltsamer Gestalt'), ahd. selt-sāni `seltsam', adv. seltan `seldom' etc (`seldom' from `for sich, alleinstehend, einzig'); daß lat. sōlus `allein, einzig, bare' einer similar idg. connection *sō-lo- entstammt, is möglich; after Szemerényi (Word 8, 50) from *su̯e-alo-.

    8. Vom Reflexivum in the meaning to divide is the stem su̯e- in particles for `so' from which `as' and `if':

    Hom. ὥς (Fως) nachgestellt `so' from *su̯ō- with suffixalem -s; but ὁτ(τ)ι, att. ὅτις `was also immer' (*i̯od-kʷid), hom. ὅππως, att. ὅπως `as' belong to *i̯o- above S. 283 (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 617); osk. svaí, svae, umbr. sve, sue `if', alat. suad (Festus) `sic'; got. swē `as' (relative), swa-swē `as'; got. swa, anord. svā, ags. swā, swǣ `so', as. ahd. nnd. ; in addition got. swa-leiks, aisl. slīkr, ags. swelc, swilc etc, ahd. solīh, sulīh etc `solch';

    umbr. so-pir `siquis', osk. svaepis, volsk. sepis `siquis', surur, suror, suront, sururont `item' (*su̯ō-su̯ō); alat. sō-c `so' (could have evolved from *su̯ō ), lat. `if' (originally `so', sī dīs placet), sī-c `so'.

References: WP. II 455 ff., WH. II 457 f., 506 f., 530 f., 552 f., 557, 626 f.; Trautmann 251 f., 291, 294 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 226, 600 f., 606 f.; 2, 577; Mezger Word 4, 98 ff., Benveniste BSL 50, 36 ff.;

See also: s. also seni- and su-.

Page(s): 882-884


Root / lemma: sē̆ik-, sī̆k-

Meaning: to reach for, grab

German meaning: `reichen, greifen (with the Hand)'

Material: Gr. ἵκω (*sīkō), dor. εἵκω (*seikō) `komme, gelange, erreiche', ion. att. Inf. Aor. ἱκέσθαι (*sĭk-), Praes. ἱκνέομαι, hom. ἱκά̄νω (*ἱκανFω) ds., ἱκανός `hinreichend, genügend', ἱκέτης, ἵκτωρ, ἱκτήρ `Schutzflehender' (`schutzsuchend after jmdm. langend'); προΐσσομαι `bettle', προΐκτης `Bettler', προίξ, προικός f. `gift, present', att. Akk. προῖκα `as gift, umsonst', ἴκμενοςοὖρος `ein günstiger wind' (with dem man das Ziel erreicht), αἴκτος `unzugänglich'; from idg. *[i]k-: ἥκω `bin angekommen, bin da';

    contamination from εἱκ- and ἐνεγκ- is ep. ion. ἤν-εικα `ἤνεγκα';

    aisl. sār `großer Kübel' = ags. `Eimer' (*saihaz), aisl. sāld ds. (*saihadla-); lit. síekti `die Hand ausstrecken', seikiù, seikė́ti `with Hohlmaß messen', Iter. saikaũ, -ýti; saĩkas, síekas `Hohlmaß'; síeksnis `Klafter (as Maß)';

References: WP. II 465 f., Trautmann 252.

Page(s): 893


Root / lemma: sē(i)-1

Meaning: to sift

German meaning: `sieben'

Material: Gr. ἤθω, ἤθέω `siebe', ἠθμός m. `Seihtuch, Sieb'; changing through ablaut (probably ī-) ἱμαλιά̄ τὸ ἐπίμετρον τῶνἀλεύρων Hes., ἱμαλίς, -ίδος `Schutzgöttin the Mühlen' under likewise; (about lat. simila `feinstes Weizenmehl' s. but WH. II 538); mir. sīthlad `das Sieben' (das th from sīthal `Eimer'); cymr.hidl, mbret. sizl, nbret. sil `Sieb' from *sē-tlo- = aisl. sāld n. `Sieb' = got. *sēÞl, vorausgesetzt durch karel. siekla, finn. seula `Sieb'; lit. síetas `Sieb' = aksl. sito ds. (*sēi-to-), lit. sijóju, -ti `sieben'; slav. *sějǫ, *sěti (*sějati) in aksl. pro-sěati `σινίασαι' serb. sȉjati `sieben', (present-stem *sēi̯a-, preterit-stem *sii̯ā-); alb. shosh `siebe'(*si̯ā-s);

    *sēi- `sieben' is probably as `durch ein Geflecht fall lassen' eine Sonderanwendung from *sēi- `entsenden, throw, säen, fall lassen'.

References: WP. II 459, Trautmann 254.

Page(s): 889


Root / lemma: sē(i)-2 : sǝi- : sī- : sē- : sǝ- and sei- : si-

Meaning: to throw, send, let fall, sow; semenƛ ɫäṭɛ

German meaning: `entsenden, werfen, fallen lassen, säen'; besides `nachlassen, loslassen, säumen (late, langsam, langdauernd); Abspannung, Ruhe; herabsinkend'; andrerseits `die Hand whereupon ausstrecken, Anspannung, Kraft'

Material: A. `entsenden, throw, säen':

    a. Old Indian sā́yaka-, `zum Schleudern bestimmt', m. n. `Wurfgeschoß, Pfeil', m. `sword', sāyikā `Dolch', sḗnā `Wurfgeschoß, spear, lance; Schlachtreihe, Heer', prásita- `dahinschießend (from birds)', prásiti- f. `Anlauf, onrush, Wurf, Geschoß';

    b. `säen': Old Indian sī́ra- n. `Saatpflug', sī́tā `furrow' (*die Besäte); lat. serō (*si-s-ō), -ere, sēvī, sătus `säen, bepflanzen, hervorbringen, zeugen', sătiō `das Säen', sător `Säer'; got. saian (saísō), ahd. sāen, as. sāian, ags. sāwan, aisl. `säen' from urgerm. *sējan = lit.sė́ju (sė́ti) ds., aksl. sějǫ (sějati) ds.; lat. sēmen ` seed, sperm ' (Sēmōnēs `Saatgötter'), ahd. as. sāmo ds. (m. geworden), lit. Pl. sė́men-s, -ys `Flachssaat', apr. semen> `Samen', aksl.sěmę `Samen'; ahd. etc sāt `das Säen, Saat', got. mana-sēÞs `(Menschensaat) Menschheit, world'; zero grade cymr. bret. had ` seed, sperm ', corn. has ` seed, sperm ', further probably air. sa(i)the (*sǝti̯o-) `Schwarm, Wurf from jungen animals, brood', cymr. haid f. `Schwarm, troop, multitude, crowd', bret. hed m. `Schwarm, Bienenschwarm' (also `* seed, sperm = Generation, progeny ', as got. manasēÞs);

maybe alb. (*seth), hedh 'throw' [common alb. s- > h- shift]

    -tlo-formation: lit. sėklà `Saat': with Red.-grade *sǝi-: lat. saeculum `gender, sex, Menschenalter, Jahrhundert'; cymr. hoedl `Lebensdauer', abret. hoetl, mbret. hoazl ds., gall. Deae Sētloceniae;

    air. sīl ` seed, sperm ', cymr. hil ` seed, sperm, progeny ' (idg. *sē-lo-), lit. pasėlỹs `Aussaat, Beisaat'; zero grade in compound: probably got. frasts `kid, child' from *pro-s[ǝ]-tis; perhaps mir. ross n. `(flax)samen';

    strittig is die affiliation from gr. ἵημι `werfe, sende', see above S. 502.

    B. `die Hand wornach ausstrecken; Anspannung, power ', presumably from the outlook the kraftvoll zum Wurfe gereckten Hand:

    aisl. seilask (*sailjan) `sich strecken, bemühen'; lit. síela `Eifer', apr. seilin Akk. ds., Pl. seilins `sense', noseilis `ghost'; serb. sȉla, èech. síla ` power ' (*sḗilā); air. sīnim `recke, strecke from'; lit. ne-seĩ-nyti `not erreichen'; mir. sethar `strong' (*si-tro), cymr. hydr, abret. hitr, hedr, nbret. hezr `bold'.

    C. `kraftlos die Hand sinken lassen, nachlassen, loslassen; säumen; late, slow, sich lang hinziehend; Abspannung, Ruhe; herabsinkend';

    Old Indian áva-syati, Aor. a-sāt `hört auf, schließt; makes halt, verweilt', áva-sita- `wer sich niedergelassen hat, wohnhaft', avasā́na- n. `place of Absteigens, Einkehr, abode, residence; end, death'; sāyá- n. `Einkehr, evening', sāti- f. `decision, end' (Lex.) = av. hāti- `piece, break, section' (`*das Absetzen am Schluß eines Abschnittes'); av. ϑra- n. `certain Zeitraum, Frist'(*`Absatz, ein way- and Zeitmaß');

    gr. presumably ἥσυχος `ruhig' (ending as μείλι-χος, from einem *sē-tu- `Ruhe'; similar t- derivatives see under);

    lat. sinō, -ere, sī-vi `lassen, geschehen lassen', dēsinere `ablassen, cease', dēsivāre `ablassen', pōnō (*po-sĭnō, compare participle positus); `place, stellen' (*`nieder-place, ab-place'), situs `stand gelassen; beigesetzt'; sileō, -ēre `ruhen, cease (e.g. vom Winde), schweigen' = got. anasilan `(vom Winde:) cease, verstummen' due to eines l-participle *si-lo-; compare ags. sāl-nes `Schweigen' (*sǝi-lo-);

    lat. sētius `later, less, less good'; sērus `late' (= air. sīr);

    air. sīr (= lat. sērus) `langdauernd, ewig', cymr. corn. bret. hir `long', Kompar. air. sīa = cymr. hwy (from *sē-is), Superl. air. sīam, cymr. hwyaf; mir. sith- `lang, andauernd' (Intensivpartikel), compounds sithithir `also long', cymr. hyd `Lange, Fortdauer, while; usque ad', acymr. hit, corn. hes, bret. hed, het m. `length' (*si-tu-, -ti-); viell. cymr. hoed (*sǝi-to-) m. `Sehnsucht';

    got. seiÞus `late', Þana-seiÞs `further, still' (Kompar.-Adv. *sīÞ-iz, as:) aisl. sīðr Adv. `less', sīz `nachdem' (< sīðes), ags. sīð ðām `seitdem', as. sīth, ahd. sīd ds., nhd. seit; aisl. sīð Adv. `late', Superl. sīzt; with the meaning `schlaff herabfallend' : sīðr `herabhängend, long', afries. sīde `niedrig', ags. sīd `long, wide, breit', ahd. sīto Adv. `laxe'; eine Substantivierung therefrom is aisl. sīða f. `Seite (of Körpers)', ags. sīde, as. sīda, ahd. sīta `Seite' (from dem concept the Ausdehnung after under grown); got. sainjan `säumen, hesitate', aisl. seinn `slow, late', ags. sǣnе, mhd. seine `slow, idle', ags. ā-sānian `slack, weak become'; changing through ablaut mhd. senen (*si-nēn), nhd. sich sehnen and schwed. dial. sīna `cease milk to give' (n bare present formant, as in lat. sinō); norw. seimen `saumselig, slow', ahd. lancseimi `slow'; changing through ablaut ags. siomian (*simian) `hesitate, hängen, sich senken', ahd. gi-semōn `harren';

    lit. ãtsainus `careless, neglectful', presumably also sietuvà, lett. siet(u)s, sietawa `deep place in river' (perhaps `deep hinabsinkend');

References: WP. II 459 ff., WH. II 512, 522, 526 f., 545 f., Trautmann 253 f., Thieme, The Heimat the idg. Gemeinsprache 25;

See also: compare above S. 887: seg-1.

Page(s): 889-891


Root / lemma: sē(i)-3, -sǝi- : sī- and sei- : si-

Meaning: to bind; strap

German meaning: `binden (also durch Zauber), Strick, Riemen'

Material: Old Indian syáti, sinā́ti, sinōti `binds, binds los' (Perf. siṣā́ya, Aor. ásāt, participle sita-), sayatvá- n. `connection, Befestigung', sētár- m. `Feßler; fesselnd', prasiti- `Schlinge, Netz, Falle' (lex.); av. hā(y)- `bind, fesseln' (present hayeiti, participle hita-), hita- m. `Gespann';

    lett. sìet `bind', lit. siẽti ds., sijà `Brückenbalken', ãtsaja `Stränge of Pferdes';

    hitt. išḫii̯a-, išḫāi, luv. hišḫii̯a- `bind' (Pedersen Hitt. 114 Anm.).

    with -bh- formants: air. soīb ` deceitful, verlogen' (*soi-bho-), wörtl. `zauberisch', ablaut. sīabair `Phantom, ghost', sīabraid `verzaubert, verwandelt' (*sei-bh-), PN Find-abair f. = cymr. Gwen-hwyfar `Ginevra' (`weißes ghost'); s. Vendryès RC 46, 263 ff.;

    With m-formant: Old Indian sīmán- m., sīmā f. `Scheitel, limit, boundary', sīmanta- m. ds.;

    gr. ἱμά̄ς, -άντος `strap' (to *ἱμά̄), ἱμάω `pull an einem rope, cable in die Höhe', ἱμονιά̄ `Brunnenseil', ἱμαῖος `das Wasserschöpfen betreffend', ἱμάσσω (Aor. ἱμάσσαι, ἱμάσαι) `peitschen'; ir. sim `Kette'; aisl. sīmi m. `rope, cable, cord', ags. sīma, as. sīmo `band, strap, rope, manacle', aisl.seimr ` filament ';

    With n-formant: av. hinu- m. `band, strap, manacle', ags. sinu, ahd. senawa, aisl. sin f. `sinew' (urgerm. *sinwā, das after dem alteration from nu̯ to nn from sinu- reshaped is), mir. sī̆n `Kette, collar, neckband'; lett. pa-sainis `cord', aif-sainis `bundle', lit. síena `limit, boundary, wall', lett. siẽna `wall';

    With l-formant: aisl. seil f., ags. sāl m. f., ahd. seil n. `rope, cable, rope, manacle', got. in-sailjan `anseilen', ablauteud ahd. silo m. `rope, cable, strap', aisl. sili, seli m. `Seile'; lit. àtsailė f. `Verbindungsstange between Bracke and Achse', àtseilis `das vom Schwengel an die Achse gehende iron'; slav. *sidlo n. (*sitlo-) in aksl. silo `rope, cable', poln. sidɫo `Schlinge';

    With t-formant still: Old Indian sḗtu- `bindend, fesselnd', m. `band, strap, manacle, bridge, Damm, Grenzzeichen', av. haētu- `Damm'; lat. saeta `starkes hair, esp. the animal, bristle'; cymr. bret. hud `charm, spell', acorn. hudol `Zauberer' from *soi-to- = germ. *saiÞa- `charm, spell', GN Dat. Pl. Saitchamimi[s], to *SaiÞhamjōz `die durch Zauber ihre Gestalt ändern können', aisl. seiðr m. `band, strap, rope, cable', seið f. `charm, spell'; in addition sīða `conjure, perform magic', ags. -siden f. `charm, spell'; ags. sāda m. `rope', ahd. seito m., seita f. `rope, Fallstrick, Saite'; lit. saĩtas, siẽtas, lett. saĩte `band, strap, manacle, cord', apr. saytan n. `strap'; aksl. sětь f. `Netz', sitьce `rope'.

References: WP. II 463 f., WH. II 462, Trautmann 253, W. Wüst Ural-alt. Jb. 26, 135 ff.

Page(s): 891-892


Root / lemma: sē̆k-2

Meaning: to cut

German meaning: `schneiden'

Grammatical information: unthemat. Wurzelpräsens

Material: Alb. shatë `Karst' (*sekti-);

    lat. secō, -āre `cut, clip, abschneiden', segmen, segmentum `break, section', secespita `Opfermesser' (ending unerklärt), secīvum `libum est, quod secespita secātur' (: aksl. sěèivo `axe'); secūris `axe' (: aksl. sekyra `axe'), sēcula `sickle' (kampanisch); with ablaut lat. a:saxum `Felsstück' (compare to meaning rupes: rumpō, nhd. Schere `Кlippe': scheren, zur form ahd. sahs `knife', aksl. socha; lat. a seems Red.-grade o besides о in ahd. sahs), perhaps sacēna, scēna `die hoe the Pontifices' (*sakes-nā); asignae `κρέα μεριζόμενα' (*an-sek-nā), marr. asignas N. Pl. f. `non prosectae (carnes)';

    lat. sī̆gnum n. `mark, token, sign, Kennzeichen', if originally `eingeschnittene Marke' (?); umbr. prusekatu `prōsecātō', proses̀etir `prōsectīs', asec̨eta `non secta', prusec̨ia `prōsiciās';

    mir. tescaid `cuts, slices, beißt' (*to-eks-sk-), mir. ēiscid `haut ab' (*in-sek-); mir. arasc (*ari-sko-) `abgehauener neck -stump', airsce (*ari-ski̯o-) ds.; air. se(i)che f. `skin, fell, fur' (: aisl. sigg n. `hard skin' from *seʒi̯a-); but ir. sēol `kerchief, cloth, sail', cymr. hwyl `sail' from *seglo- (: aisl. ags. segl `sail' from *sekló-m) are probably germ. Lw.;

    cymr. hesg, Sg. hesgen `carex' (from den incisive scharfen Blättern), acorn. heschen `canna, arundo', bret. hesk (*sek-skā) `reed with schneidenden Blättern', mir. seisc f. ` bulrush';

    ahd. sega, saga, ags. sagu, sage, aisl. sǫg `Säge', ahd. segisna, segansa, nhd. Sense; aisl. segi, sigi m. `losgerissenes Fleischstück, Fleischfaser'; aisl. sigðr m., sigð f., ags. sigðe m., mnd. segede, sichte f. `sickle' (*seketó-); ags. secg f. `sword' and `Riedgras', mnd. segge `Riedgras'; ahd. sahar, nhd. bair. Sac(h)er ds.; aisl. ags. segl, ahd. segal `sail', as. segal, segela `curtain' (*`Tuchstück'; see above to ir. sēol); aisl. sigg n. `hard skin' (see above to ir. seiche); aisl. sax n. `knife, sword', Pl. sǫx `Schere', ags. seax n. `knife, kurzes sword', ahd. sahs `knife' (also in mezzi-ra(h)s, ags. mete-seax `knife'); aisl. sø̄gr `losgerissenes Stück, stripe'; ahd. suoha `harrow, furrow' (Demin. suohili, suoli n.);

    lit. į-sē̆kti `eingraben', išsē̆kti `sculpere'; aksl. sěkǫ, sěšti `cut, clip', sěèivo `axe' (: lat. secīvum), sekyra `axe' (next to which *sěkyra in serb. sjekira after sěkǫ transfigured);

    unclear, in the case of here lat. sīca `Dolch', sīcīlis `Lanzenspitze'; lit. sỹkis `Hieb, Mal', klr. syè in. `the after dem Abbrechen of Astes hinterbleibende Teil of Stammes', ags. sāgol (*sǝikolo-), m. `stick, club, mace, joint' = mhd. seigel `Leitersprosse, grade', mhd. dial. saich `reed'.

References: WP. II 474 f., WH. II 459, 484, 504 f., 534 f., Trautmann 255;

See also: s. also (s)k(h)ed-, skēi-, sken-, skēu-6.

Page(s): 895-896


Root / lemma: sēk-3

Meaning: quiet, lazy

German meaning: `nachlassen, träge, ruhig'

Material: Gr. hom. ἦκα `still, leise, sacht, weak, slow', ἤκιστος `langsamster', att. ἥκιστα `am wenigsten, gar nicht', hom. ἥσσων, att. ἥττων `schwächer, geringer'; reduced grade hom.ἀκέων `schweigend' = Adverb. ἀκήν, later as object, dor. ἀκᾶ (Instr.) `ruhig, stillschweigend', ἀκαλά-ρροος, ἀκαλα-ρρείτης `gentle flowing ', perhaps ἄκασκα, ἀκασκᾳ `sacht';

    lat. sēgnis (*sēknis) `slow, sleepy, idle'.

    extension from 2. *sē(i)- `nachlassen'.

References: WP. II 474, WH. II 510; M. Leumann, Homer. Wörter 166 f., Frisk 52.

Page(s): 896


Root / lemma: sēmi-

Meaning: half

German meaning: `halb' as 1. composition part

Material: Old Indian sāmí- `halb' (-sāmi- Adj. `not halb, vollständig'); gr. ἡμι- `halb' (ἥμισυς `halb' from originally ἥμιτυς m. `*half', compare kret. ἠμιτυ-έκτου, epid. ἡμίτεια; ἡμίνα `half'); lat. sēmi- (sēmus late Adjektivierung); sēmis indekl. `halb, half' probably after bis; ahd. sāmi-, as. sām-; compare lat. sēmi-vivus, gr. ἡμί-βιος, ahd. sāmi-queck, as. sām-quick `halbtot'.

References: WP. II 493, WH. II 512 f.

Page(s): 905-906


Root / lemma: sē[i]dh- : sīdh- and : sǝdh-

Meaning: to strive for a goal

German meaning: `geradeaus auf ein Ziel zugehen'

Material: Old Indian sā́dhati `kommt zum Ziel, bringt zum Ziel, in order', Kausat. sādháyati, sādhú- `straight, proficient', -sādh- (2. composition part) = jav. -hād- `lenkend', hādrōyā- f. `desire nachErreichung of Zieles' (from *hādra- m., idg. *sēdh-ro- `Erreichung of Zieles'); zero grade Old Indian sidhrá- `erfolgreich', sídhyati `kommt zum Ziel', participle siddhá-, Perf. siṣḗdha- etc; av. āsna `erfolgreich' (*ā-zdh-na-); ablaut neologism is sadh- in Old Indian sadh-nōti and sádhis- `place, Ziel';

    gr. ̄θύς (*sīdhus) `straight (auf ein Ziel gerichtet), Adv. geradeaus', ἰθύς, -ύος `attack, Unternehmung', ἰθύω `dringe vor', ̄θύ̄νω `make straight'; εἶθαρ `sogleich', εὐθύς (from *εἰθύς) `straight'.

References: WP. II 450, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 350.

Page(s): 892


Root / lemma: si̯ē[u]-ro- : si̯ǝ-ur(i̯o)-

Meaning: brother-in-law

German meaning: `Bruder der Frau'?

Material: Old Indian syālá- `Bruder the wife, woman'; serb.-ksl. šurь, serb. šûra, aruss. russ. šúrin (Pl. šúrьja, comparebratьja).

 

Maybe alb. *hyla, v(ë)lla ‘brother’

References: WP. II 514, Trautmann 261, Specht Idg. Dekl. 91; against it Brückner ZslPh. 4, 217;

See also: in the case of to sē̆i-3 S. 891?

Page(s): 915


Root / lemma: si̯ū-

Meaning: to sew

German meaning: `nähen'

Grammatical information: (vor Kons. and in present si̯ūu̯ō), sīu̯- (in present sīu̯i̯ō)

Comments: besides sū- (dissimilated from si̯ū-i̯ō); probably to sĕi-3, S. 891

Material: Old Indian sī́vyati `näht' (= got. siujan), syūtá- `genäht' (= lit. siútas, russ. šityj ds., aisl. sjōðr), syūman- n. `band, strap, rein, suture' (compare apr. schumeno, and with gr. ὑμήν), sīvana-m `das Nähen, the suture', sūtra-m ` filament '; gr. ὑμήν m. `dünne skin, sinew'; lat. suō, -ere, suī, sัtum ` sew, zusammennähen', sūtor `Schuster', sūbula `Ahle' (*sū-dhlā); got. siujan, aisl. sȳja, ags. si(o)wian, seowian, ahd. siuwan (preterit siwita) ` sew '; ahd. siut m. ` suture', aisl. sjōðr m., ags. seod `Beutel' (iu̯ from idg. i̯ū); mhd. sūte ` suture', aisl. sūð f. `Plankenverband, board'; ahd. siula, nhd. Säule `Ahle' (*si̯ū-dhlā, compare aksl. silo and lat. subula);

ahd. soum, ags. sēam, aisl. saumr m. `hem, suture' (compare Old Indian syūman-); lit. siuvù, siúti ` sew ', lett. šuvu (šuju, šũnu), šut ds.; lit. siútas `genäht', lett. suts ds.; apr. schumeno `Schusterdraht' (: Old Indian syuman-); aksl. šijǫ (*si̯ūi̯ō), šiti (= lit. siúti) ` sew ', russ. šityj `genäht', aksl. sьvěnъ `genäht' (*si̯uu̯eno-), silo = èech. sidlo n. `Ahle'; weiteres by Trautmann 261 f.; hitt. šum(m)anza(n) ` filament ', also (?) šuel, šuil ds.

References: WP. II 515 f., WH. II 631 f., Carruthers Lg. 6, 161 f.

Page(s): 915-916


Root / lemma: skabh-, skambh-

Meaning: to support

German meaning: `stützen'

Material: Old Indian skabhnā́ti, skabhnṓti `stützt', Perf. cā̆skámbha; skabhāyati `befestigt, stützt'; skambhá- m., skámbhana-m `pad, Pfeiler', av. upaskambǝm `under Festmachen', fraskǝmba-, frasèimbana- `Tragbalken, Pfeiler'; npers. paškam `porticus', sogd. šk'np- (*skamb) `étage de l'univers';

 

Maybe alb. kamba, këmbë `leg, pillar', shkamb, shkëmb `seat, bench, rock, stone, *pillar' related to lat. scamnum (*skabhnom). Also shkabë `eagle, mountain bird', zhgabonjë, shqiponjë `eagle'.

    lat. scamnum (*skabhnom) ` bench, footstool ', Demin. scabillum, scabellum `niedriges Bänkchen, footstool ';

    die ar. Binnennasalierung, as well as the e-vocalism from av. frasèimbana- (compared with Old Indian skámbhana-m) durch ar. reshuffling from skabh- after *stembh- (see steb- `Pfosten') in Old Indian stabhnā́ti `stützt', stambha- `Pfosten, Pfeiler, column ' etc

References: WP. II 539, WH. II 487 f.

Page(s): 916


Root / lemma: (s)kamb- and (s)kemb-

Meaning: to curve, bend

German meaning: `krümmen, biegen'

Material: Gr. σκαμβός `krumm, krummbeinig'; air. camb `krumm', cymr. corn. cam, bret. kamm ds., gall. inCambio-dūnum `Kempten', bret. camhet an rot `Radfelge' (*cambitā); zero grades *km̥b- `turn = wenden, swap, vary, exchange, tauschen' and `zusammendrehen, fesseln' in gall.-lat. cambiāre `swap, vary, exchange, tauschen' and mir. cimb `Tribut, Silber', air. cimbid `Gefangener', cimbe `Gefangenschaft';

    With e-vocalism: gr. κόμβος m. `band, strap, loop', κομβόω `knüpfe'; norw. hempa `Kleiderstrippe, Schlinge, Henkel' (also `Zeug from Hanf', in welcher meaning certainly from hamp `Hanf' beeinflußt);

    from einer basic meaning `krumm gehen' from reiht man an: gr. *σκέμβω `hinke' erschlossen from dem names Σκόμβος, schwed. skumpa `hinken', skimpa `hüpfen, tanzen', ahd. scimpfan `Scherz drive, push, play, verspotten', nhd. schimpfen, Schimpf; nhd. (nd.) humpen, humpeln (or to keub-? above S. 590 f.);

    *(s)kamb- reminds an kam-, kamp- `bend' (above S. 525); sein relationship to (s)kemb- is still unclear; also das zur nasallosen root for `bend' (?) or `haken' (compare lit. kimbù, kìbti `hangen bleiben'): kabù, -ė́ti `hangen', kabìnti `hängen', kablỹs m. `Haken', kabė̃ f. `Heftel, Haken' (but also e-forms as kebẽklis `Haken'); aksl. skoba f. `fibula', russ. skobá `Klammer', wherefore aisl. hōp n. `small Bucht', ags. hōp `ring'; against it aisl. hespa `Eisenkrampen' = ags. hæpse, hæsp, mhd. haspe, hespe, nhd. Haspe, Häspe, holl. hespe `Hüftgelenk', mndl. also `hack, mattock, hoe' to kap-, above S. 527 f.

maybe alb. kamba, këmbë ‘leg, bent leg’. According to the laryngeal theory alb. has the oldest cognate before the shift from centum to satem languages.

 References: WP. I 346, 350 f., II 539 f., WH. I 148 f., Trautmann 112, 116.

Page(s): 918


Root / lemma: (s)kand-, (s)kend-

German meaning: `leuchten'

See also: see above S. 526 (kā̆-).

Page(s): 918


Root / lemma: (s)kāi-, (d-), (t-)

Meaning: shining, bright

German meaning: `hell, leuchtend'

Material: Old Indian kētú- m. `Lichterscheinung, Helle, Bild' (= got. haidus), kēta- m. `mark, token, sign', kētana-m `body, Erkennungszeichen', citrá- `augenfällig, lovely, superb, pretty, splendid, bright', n. `apparition' = av. èiϑra- `augenfällig, clear, bright' (ablaut. with ahd. heitar);

    lat. probably caesius `γλαυκός, from den Augen' (from *kait- or *kaid-to- from, compare lit. skáistas) and caelum `sky, heaven' (*kaid-lo- or *kaid-, *kait-slo-, compare with -r-forms dt.heiter, lit. skaid-rùs, skáidrus);

    got. haidus `kind of and Weise' (originally *`lichte apparition'), aisl. heiðr m. `honour, Lohn', ags. hād, hǣd, ahd. heit `Stand, rank, kind of' (nhd. suffix -heit); aisl. heið n. `klarer, heiterer sky, heaven' (: Old Indian kēta- m.), heið-r Adj. `cheerful, unbewölkt'; ahd. heitar `cheerful, gleaming (originally vom wolkenlosen sky, heaven)', as. hēdar `cheerful', ags. hādor ds., n. `Heiterkeit of Himmels';

    lit. skaidrùs, skáidrus `bright, clear, bright'; lett. skaĩdrs ds., `clean'; lit. skáistas, skaistùs `bright'; different (to skēid- under S. 921) Trautmann 263.

References: WP. II 537 f., WH. I 130f., 133;

See also: compare kăi-3 (above S. 519) and sk̂āi- (under).

Page(s): 916-917


Root / lemma: (s)kek-, skeg-

Meaning: to spring, move quickly

German meaning: `springen; lebhafte Bewegung'

Material: Gr. κεκῆνας λαγωούς. Κρῆτες Hes. (`hare' as `Springer');

    air. scēn `fright' (*skek-no-); scochid, newer scuchid (*skoketi) `weicht, geht fort, geht to end' (Konj.-stem scess-, Perf. scāich `ging fort, war vorüber'); di-ro-uss-scoch- `übertreffen' (*`hervorspringen'), cymr. ysgogi `to stir', bret. diskogella `shake';

    ahd. scehan st. V. `hurry, quick, fast fortgehen', mhd. nhd. geschehen, ags. scēon schw. V. `geschehen, hurry', mhd. schehen schw. V. `quick, fast einherfahren, hurry', ahd. skihtīg `shy' (got. skōhsl n. `böser ghost, fiend, demon' as `einherfahrend' or `schüttelnd' here?); Causative mhd. schicken (`proceed, go ahead lassen') `bereiten, sort, order, arrange, senden', nhd. schicken; ahd. gesciht `Ereignis', nhd. Geschichte, mhd. schiht ` alignment, Schicht (by Bergleuten, and otherwise)'; with gramm. variation: aisl. skaga `hervorspringen, hervorstechen', skagi m. `Landzunge', lengthened gradeskōgr m. `wood, forest'; ags. tōscecgan `sich divide', sceaga m. `shrubbery, bush' (from `wood, forest'); also aisl. skegg n. `beard' (*skaggja-), ags. sceagga `Haupthaar', aisl. skeggja f. `Streitaxt' (compare nhd.Barte ds.);

    ksl. skokъ m. `Sprung', Perfektiv aksl. skoèiti, Imperf. skakati `spring'; with Alternationsk:ks lit. šókti `spring', lett. sâkt `begin', lit. šankìnti `spring make'.

    Auslautvariante auf -g-: skeg- `hurry, spring, shake' (= `spring make') in: Old Indian khajati `rührt um' (Dhātup.), khája- m. `Gewühl', khája-, khajaka- m., (lex.) khajā f. `Rührstock, Butterstößel'; aisl. skaka st. V. `swing, schnitteln', ags. sceacan `shake (engl. shake); hurry, weggehen, flee'; as. skakan st. V. `weggehen, entfliehen' (nd. schacken `shake, rücken'), ahd. unt-scachōndes `fluctivagi'; ahd. scahho m. `Vorgebirge', mhd. schache m. `Stückeinzelstehenden Waldes', nhd. bair. schweiz. Schachen ds., aisl. skekill `Landzunge'.

    doubtful is affiliation from afries. skāk m. `booty, Raub', ahd. scāch m. `Räuberei, Raub', ags. scēacere, ahd. scāhhari `Räuber', nhd. Schächer (actually `schweifen, or with dem Raub run'?).

References: WP. II 556 f., Trautmann 262.

Page(s): 922-923


Root / lemma: (s)kel-1

Meaning: to cut

German meaning: `schneiden'

Comments: not reliable from kel- `hit' and kel- `prick' (above S. 545 f.) to separate.

Material: Old Indian kalā́ `small part' (: serb. pro-kola `Teil eines gespaltenen Ganzen', das at first to aksl. koljǫ `steche' and `split', above S. 546);

    arm. èelk`em `split, zerschlage'; probably also k`eli `Steuerruder' (meaning as in ags. helma, see under); auf anl. sk̂- (with otherwise nirgends wiederkehrendem palatal) wiese c̣elum `split';

    gr. σκάλλω `scharre, hacke, grabe', σκαλίς `hack, mattock, hoe, Karst'; σχαλίς ` wooden fork alsStütze aufgerichteter Jagdnetze' (under influence of σχάζω `ritze, schlitze auf', σχάσμα ` incision '); σκαλμός `peg, plug, Ruderdolle' (compare thrak. σκάλμη, ahd. scalm, ags. helma, osorb. èoɫm, lit. kélmas); σκύλλω `flay, tear, rend, plage' (*skoli̯ō), κο-σκυλ-μάτια `Lederschnitzel, Abfall from leather', σκῶλος `Spitzpfahl' (compare lit. kuõlas `picket, pole'; with ŏ: aksl. kolъ `peg, plug' above S. 546); perhaps is also κωλύω `hemme, hindre' from einem *κῶλος `peg, plug' derived (`anpflöcken'), the ending -ύω after dem begriffl. contrast λύω?; σκόλυθρον ` footstool ', σκολύπτειν `verstümmeln, beschneiden' Hes., ἀποσκολύπτω `kastriere'; auf eine meaning `from the skin sich abspaltende Schuppe' goes back κελεφός `Aussätziger' (compare mengl. scalle `Grind', nengl. scall (nord. Lw.), schwed. skål `skin rash am Munde');

    thrak. σκάλμη `sword, knife' (*skolmā);

    alb. halë `Schuppe, Gräte, splinter, beard the Ähren' (*skoli̯ā = got. skalja); holë `thin, fine, tender'; f. `Zartheit' (*skēl-); hel `Pfrieme, Ahle', hele `Bratspieß, spit, pike, Lanze' (= σκῶλος); perhaps shtel' `öffne, make gleaming, sharp, stecke fire an, entzünde' (lit. skìlti likewise `fire anschlagen');

maybe alb. geg. skile `fox, smart animal, sharp mind (of a fox)'

    lat. siliqua `Hülsenfruchtschote' (whereof silicia `foenum graecum, Bockshorn'), diss. from *sciliqua, older *sceliquā: aksl. skolьka `ostreum'; lat. silex, -icis `Kiesel' diss. from *scilec- older scelic-; compare mir. sce(i)llec `Fels' (ending after air. carraic `Felsen');

    without anl. s- perhaps here: lat. culter, -trī `knife' (*kel-tro-s, *kol-tro-s or*kḷ-tros); celtis f. `chisel' existiert not, s. Niedermann, Mus. Helv. 2, 123 f.;

    cymr. chwalu `scatter', corn. scullye, sculye, bret. skuĺa ds.;

    mir. scoilt, scailt `col, gap', scoiltim `I split', brit. with rearrangement of sk- to ks- (hw-): cymr. hollt `col, gap', corn. felǯa (umlaut) `split', bret. faouta ds.; mir. sceillec `Fels' (see above); perhaps mir. scellān ` seed, sperm, Kern';

    air. colainn `Fleisch', cymr. celain ` corpse ' (*kolanī); cymr. caill, Pl. ceilliau `testicle(n)', bret. kell ds.; gall. callio-marcus `Huflattich' from older *callio marcī `testiculus equi'; compare gall. ebulcalium (from *epālo-callion) besides epo-calium (*epo-callion) `ungula caballina';

    got. skilja `Fleischer'; aisl. skilja `separate, distinguish, discern, (ent)divide', skil n. (i after skilja) `difference, Entscheidung, Bescheid', skila `(ent)divide'; ndl. verschillend `different' (*skiljand); mnd. schelen `separate, distinguish, discern' (schele `difference, lack, limit, boundary') = ags. scielian `divide, entfernen' (*skelōn);

    got. skildus `shield', aisl. skjǫldr m. (out of it mir. scell), ags. scield, as. scild, ahd. scilt ds. (-tu-stem besides lit. skìltis `abgeschnittene Scheibe'); in addition got. skillings, ahd. etc scilling `small Münze, Schilling' from skildu-lings;

    got. skalja `Ziegel', aisl. skel f. `bowl', ags. sciell f. `husk, Muschelschale', mnd. schelle f. `bowl, Fischschuppe'; ahd. scā̆la `husk, Schale', mhd. schale also `Steinplatte', ags. scealu `husk, bowl'; ahd. fuaz-skal `wooden peg, plug as Verschluß for den foot', nhd. Schelle `manica, compes, numella', Hand-, Fußschelle;

    aisl. skjall n. `Häutchen', ags. sceallan m. Pl. `testicles', afries. skall ds. (: cymr. caill); aisl. skalli m. `Kahlkopf', as `abgeschnittene cranium'; also norw. schwed. skalle; ablaut. schwed. skulle `skull, cranium', older schwed. skolla `dünne Platte', ahd. scollo m., scolla f. `Scholle';

    with lengthened grade *skēl- (compare alb. holë): aisl. skāla f. `drinking bowl, Wagschale', ahd. as. scāla `bowl';

    as. skola, ags. scolu `dividing off, partitioning off, troop, multitude, crowd';

    without anlaut. s-: got. hallus m. `Fels' (*kol-nu-), aisl. hallr m. `Stein, Fels', hella f. ds., finn. Lw. kallio ds., (*hallj[ōn]). aisl. hellir `Berghöhle', schweiz. Hell `Steinplatte' etc; see above S. 544;

    aisl. hold n. `Fleisch', ags. hold n. `corpse', ags. holdian `aufschneiden', hyldan `die skin abziehen', aisl. hylda `aufschneiden' (based on auf einem participle *kl̥-tó-m);

    ahd. scultirra, ags. sculdor `shoulder' (*skḷ-dhrā `scapula as shovel, as Grabwerkzeug');

    with formants -mo- and den meaning `Schneidewerkzeug; geschnittenes wood; ausgehöhlter dugout canoe, barge': aisl. skǫlm f. `Zinke einer fork, Schote', Pl. `Schere', nd. ostfries ndl. schalm `thin board', aisl. skalma-trē `cloven tree', ahd. scalm `navis'; also probably ahd. scalmo `Pest, Seuche, corpse'; mhd. schalm(e) ds.; in addition skelmo `Todeswürdiger' (*skalmian-), mhd. mnd. schelm(e) ` villain '; compare alb. helm `mourning, grief, poison '; without anlaut. s-: ags. helma, engl. helm `handle, grasp of Steuerruders, tax', mhd. halm(e), helm `Axtstiel', ahd. helmo, halmo `Ruderpinne', ndl. helmstock ds., mnd. holm `crossbar, crossbeam, Jochträger', aisl. hjǫlm f. `tax', hjalm-vǫlr `Ruderpinne';

    *skol-dhā `(abgeschnittene) shaft, pole' is probably die base from ahd. scalta `Stoßstange, Bootshaken', scaltan `with einer shaft, pole schieben', nhd. schalten also `einschalten (= dazwischen hineinstoßen)' and übertr. `walten', dial. also `split', as. skaldan `ein Fahrzeug vorwärts schieben', mhd. schalte, aisl. skalda `Fähre', mhd. schalter, schelter `bar, bolt', nhd. Schalter `Schiebfenster, shaft, pole, Bootshaken';

    with formants -go-: mnd. schalk `Sparrenstütze' ostfries. schalk `Holzklötzchen as Unterlage', bair. schalken `zerspalten'; schwed. skulk `abgesägter stump';

    lit. skeliù, skélti `split' (the Akzent after skílti?), skilù, skílti `sich split'; `fire hit' (Intonation the heavy basis, as kélnės); skalà `chip of wood, Lichtspan', Iterat. skéldėti `platzen, break, crack'; lett. šḱel̂t `split', šḱēlêt ds., šḱēle `abgeschnittenes Stück', etc; about lit. kélmas see above S. 546;

    aksl. skala `Fels, Stein' (die meaning `bowl' durch borrowing from ahd. scāla ds.), sloven. skála `assula tenuis; Lichtspan', russ. skalina `abgelöste birch bark '; skolьka `Muschelschale' (see above lat. siliqua), russ. šèelь `col, gap', sloven. šèalja `splinter', poln. skalić się `sichspalten, break, crack';

    hitt. iškallāi- `zerreissen, aufschlitzen'.

    Wurzelerweiterung skel(e)-p-:

    perhaps in Old Indian kálpatē `wird geordnet, wird zuteil', kalpáyati `ordnet an', kl̥ptá `fertig, gerüstet' = av. hu-kǝrǝpta- `schöngeformt', das though also to kǝhrp- `shape' (above S. 620) belong could;

    gr. σκάλοψ `Maulwurf' (as `Gräber'); σκόλοψ m. `Spitzpfahl';

    lat. scalpō, -ere `scratch, scrape, ritzen, scratch, with spitzem tool schneiden, chisel, cut ' (scalprum, scalper `scharfes tool zum Schneiden, Meißeln'), sculpō, -ere (originally in compounds from scalpō) ds.;

    ahd. scelifa, mhd. nhd. dial. schelfe `häutige bowl', mnd. schelver `abgeblättertes Stück', schulvern `abblättern'; aisl. skjǫlf ` bench ', ags. scielfe `Flur, Stockwerk, Bretterverschlag', scielf m. `Felsspitze', mnd. schelf `Brettgerüst, Regal';

    without s: got. halbs, aisl. halfr, ags. healf, as. half, ahd. nhd. halb (eig. `divided'); ags. hielfe `handle, grasp, Schaft' (engl. helve), ahd. mhd. halb `Handhabe', nhd. dial. halb, helb `Stiel'; ahd. halftra `bridle, rein', ags. hælftre `Halfter', (from *`Handhabe');

    lit. kálpa `Querholz am sled ', kìlpa `Steigbügel, Schlinge', kìlpinis `Armbrust', apr. kalpus `Rungenstock';

    lit. sklempiù, sklem̃pti `glatt behauen, polish'.

    Wurzelerweiterung skel(e)-b-:

    aisl. skalpr `ship', dän. dial. skalp `Samenschote, husk', mnd. schulpe, scholpe `Muschel, Schuppe', dän. skulp, skulpe `Schote, Fruchtbalg', norw. skolp `Schote, husk', engl. skalp (nord. Lw.) `cranium, skull', aisl. skelpa f. `Grimasse', skolpr `Hohlmeißel'; aksl. sklabiti sę `den Mund aufmachen, lächeln', èech. škleb `Zähnefletschen';

    i-extension: sklei-, sklei-d-, sklei-k-, sklei-p-:

    aisl. slīta `tear, destroy, verbringen' (slitna intr. `rumpi'), ags. slītan `tear', as. slītan `schleißen, split', ahd. slīzan `split, rend, aufbrauchen', nhd.verschleißen, schleißen, aisl. slit `slit, crack, Abnützung', ags. geslit `das Bersten', ahd. sliz, nhd. Schlitz, mhd. sleize, nhd. Schleiße `Leuchtspan'; aisl. slīðrar f. Pl., slīðrn. Pl. `sword- or Messerscheide' as *s(k)lei-tro-, -trā- from the unerweit. root form sklei-;

    lit. skleidžiù, skleĩsti, lett. skliêst ` outspread, umblättern', lit. sklaidaũ, -ýti `hin and her blättern', refl. `sich scatter', iš-sklaidýti `scatter, vertreiben', sklį̃sti `auseinanderfließen'; lit. sklaidùs `zerstreut', lett. sklaidis `ein Herumtreiber, Taugenichts'; without anlaut. s-: klaîdît `sich herumtreiben', klîstu, klîdu, klîst `err', lit. klýstu, klýdau, klýsti `sich verirren' (without d: lit. klajóju, -óti `herumirren', lett. klaijât, -uôt ds. eineoriginally versch. family?); apr. sclait, schlāit, schklait `but; without', schklāits Adv. `sonderlich, besonders; otherwise ', Adj. `schlicht, simple, just';

    ags. slīfan `spleißen', engl. slive, ags. to-slǣfan `split', mnd. slēf, norw. sleiv `großer spoon'.

References: WP. II 590 f., WH. I 165, II 536 f., Trautmann 264.

Page(s): 923-927


Root / lemma: (s)kel-2

Meaning: to be guilty, to owe

German meaning: `schuldig sein, schulden, sollen'

Comments: only germ. and balto-slav.

Material: Got. skulan, aisl. skulu, ags. sculan, ahd. scolan `schuldig sein, müssen, sollen', newer also solan, nhd. sollen; ags. scyld f. `Schuld', ahd. aisl. skuld ds.; got. skula m. `Schuldner';

    alit. skelù and lit. skeliù, -ė́ti `schuldig sein', skylù, (*skįlù), skìlti `in Schulden geraten', skolà `Schuld'; apr. skellānts `culpable', ablaut. skallīsnan f. Akk. ` obligation ', poskulīt (paskollēt) `ermahnen';

    without s-: lit. kaltė̃ `Schuld', kal̃tas `culpable'.

References: WP. II 596, Trautmann 264 f.;

See also: compare (s)kel-4?

Page(s): 927


Root / lemma: (s)kel-3

Meaning: to dry out

German meaning: `austrocknen, dörren'

Material: Gr. σκέλλω `trockne from, desiccate ' (trans., Fut. σκελῶ, Aor. ἔσκηλα; intr. Aor. ἔσκλην, Perf. ἔσκληκα), σκελετός `ausgetrocknet', m. `Skelett', n. `Mumie', σκληρός `dry, hard, rough, unbeugsam', σκελιφρός `ausgetrocknet, abgemagert', σκληφρός `small and flink', -σκελής 1. `ohneWiderstandskraft' (without σκληρότης); 2. `unablässig, vom rage, fury, vom Weinen' (eig. `unversieglich'); περι-σκελής `very dry, brittle, hartnäckig', περι-σκέλεια f. `Hartnäckigkeit';

    schwed. skäll `mager, thin, fade, säuerlich', nd. schal `dry, arid', mnd. mhd. schal `schal from taste; trüb, unclear', schaln `trüb become', mengl. schalowe `schal, faint, languid, seicht', engl. shallow (also probably ags. sceald `seicht, not deep', nd. scholl `seichtes water');

    without anlaut. s-: aisl. hall-ǣri `Mißjahr', ags. hall-heort `erschrocken'; mhd. hel (-ll-) `weak', hellec `müde', nhd. hellig `faint, languid, erschöpft from Durst', mhd. hellegen `exhaust, behelligen', nd. hal `dry, mager'; lengthened grade (?) nd. hāl, ndl. haal `dry', mndl. hael `ausgetrocknet, arid, schal'; dän. dial. hælm `still', dän. helme `cease' (`*languish', originally vor Hitze or Durst);

    lett. kàlss `mager', kàlstu, kàlst `vertrocknen, wilt', kàltêt `dry'.

References: WP. II 597.

Page(s): 927


Root / lemma: (s)kel-4 (extended klā-, klō-)

Meaning: to bend; crooked

German meaning: `biegen; anlehnen; krumm (also sittlich: `verkehrt, unrecht'), verkrümmt'; especially in Körperteilbezeichnungen; `biegsames Gelenk, Ferse, Knie, Hüfte'

Comments: (compare also S. 611 f. kolǝ- `spinnen')

Material: Gr. σκέλος m. `Schenkel', σκελίς, -ίδος `Hinterfuß, hip, haunch' (att. σχελίς), σκελλός `krummbeinig', σκολιός `krumm; improbus', σκαληνός `tubercular, slant, skew, krumm', σκώληξ, -ηκος m. `Wurm', σκωλύπτεσθαι `crook, hin and her winden', κελλόν στρεβλόν, πλάγιον Hes., redukt.-stuf. κυλλός `gekrümmt, gelähmt', κυλλο-ποδί̄ων Beiw. of Hephaistos (*κελ-, *κυλ-νός), κυλίνδω, -έω `rolle, wälze' (ion. att. καλινδέω), κύλινδρος `Walze, Rolle, Zylinder'; κῶλον `Glied', κωλέᾱ, att. κωλῆ `Hüftknochen, ham', κωλήν, -ῆνος, κωλεός ds., κώληψ f. `Kniekehle, Knöchel' (to 1. -ap- above S. 50 f.); κωλώτης, -ου m. `Eidechse' (`with Gliedern versehen'); ὀκλάζω `hocke nieder' (Frisk IF. 49, 99 f.); about κλόνις `Steißbein' see above S. 608;

    alb. tshalë `lahm' (*skelno-);

    lat. scelus, -eris `malice, Verruchtheit, Verbrechen' (formal = σκέλος); coluber, -brī `snake' (`sich windend', *kelo-dhro-, *kolo-dhro-); calx (see under);

    ahd. (with formants -ko-) scëlah (*skélha-) `slant, skew, krumm', nhd. scheel (Denom. mhd. schilhen, nhd. schielen), ags. sceolh ds., aisl. (m. gramm. variation) skjalgr (*skelkó-) `slant, skew, scheeläugig'; isl. skǣll `schiefer mouth', aisl. skǣla sik `den Mund verziehen'; with labiales extension: aisl. skjalfa `tremble, quiver' = ags. scielfan ds., engl. to shelve `abschüssigsein', aisl. skjalfr, skelfr `zitternd'?;

    without anlaut. s-: bsl. *kali̯ō (*koli̯ō) `lehne an' in lit. at-si-kal̃ti `sich anlehnen', ãt-kalas `angelehnt'; to bsl. *klana- m. (*klǝ-no-) `Neigung' in lit. klãnas `puddle, slop', ablaut. klõnis m. `valley' (*klā-ni-), klonė̃ `lowland, depression'; with idg. ō: lit. kluõnas, lett. kluõns m. `Dreschtenne'; in addition further above S. 509 *klā- `hinlegen';

    with bsl. -ul- = lat. -al- (ind. -ol[ǝ-]) with -suffix: lit. kùlšė, kùlšis `hip, haunch' (mitk-Einschub: kulkšìs, kulkšnìs `Knöchel, Sprunggelenk'), apr. culczi `hip, haunch'; with -k-suffix: lit. kul̃nas m., kulnìs f. `hack, mattock, hoe, Ferse' (*kulk-n-), proto slav.. *kulkā f. `hip, haunch' in spätksl. klъka `poples', bg. kъ́lka `hip, haunch, thigh' (is-kъъ́ `verrenke'); skr. kȕk ds. etc;

    lat. calx `Ferse' (calcō, -āre `tread, stomp', calcitrāre `violent ausschlagen', calcar `Sporn', calceus `Schuh', tarent. καλτίον ds. from osk. *calc-tio-); after Trautmann 145 idg. root nouns *kolk- besides kolk̂-.

References: WP. II 597 ff., WH. I 144 f., 248, II 492, Trautmann 114, 135 f., 145.

Page(s): 928


Root / lemma: skendh-

Meaning: to plunge

German meaning: `untertauchen'

Comments: only gr. and balt.

Material: Gr. σκινθός `untertauchend'; lit. skęstù, skę̃sti `untersinken, ertrinken', Kausat. skandinù, -dìnti `ertränken'; apr. auskiēndlai `er gehe under'.

 

Maybe alb. (*skendh-) hedh 'plunge, throw' [common alb. sk- > h- phonetic mutation].

 

References: WP. II 565, Trautmann 265.

Page(s): 930


Root / lemma: (s)ken-(d-)

Meaning: to rift; to flay

German meaning: `abspalten; abgespaltene Haut, Schuppe, Rinde'

Comments: probably extension from sek- `cut, clip'; only kelt. under german.

Material: A. Bret. skant Kollekt. `Schuppen' (*skn̥to-), abret. anscantocion Pl. `insquamōsos', cymr. ysgythru `Schnitzen' (*sken-tr-);

    aisl. skinn n. `skin, fell, fur' (*skén-to-, urgerm. *skinÞa-, compare lapp. Lw. skidde and runisch ski[n]Þa-leubaR; ags. scinn, engl. skin ds. is Lw. from dem Nord., also mnd. schin `a kind of russisches Ledergeld'), mhd. schint f. `Obstschale', nhd. Schind-mähre, -aas, ndl. dial. schinde `skkin, fell, fur; bast, bark', abgel. verb as. biscindian `abrinden, schälen', ahd. scinten, mhd. mnd.schinden `enthäuten, ausplündern, maltreat ' (nhd. schinden st. V.); aisl. skān f. `Borke', nisl. also `Häutchen', mnd. schin `Schuppen in Haar' (out of it nhd. Schinn, Schinne), mndl. schene `dünne skin, bast';

    B. besides idg. (s)kend- in:

    air. ceinn `Schuppe, bowl', cymr. cenn (*kend-n-), acorn. cenn-en `Häutchen, skin', ysgenn `Schinnen', mbret. quenn `skin', bret. kenn m. `Schinnen', -ken `skin' in bu-gen `Rindshaut' etc; bret. (Vannes) skignan `frog' (*skenni̯ano-); aisl. hinna f. `dünne skin, Membrane' (*skend-n-);

    compare with a-vocalism: mir. scaindrim `zerspalte', scandrad, scaindred `dispersion', scainder `Gefecht'.

References: WP. II 563 f.; Loth RC. 41, 405 f.

Page(s): 929-930


Root / lemma: (s)keng-

Meaning: lame; slant

German meaning: `hinken; schief, schräg'

Material: Old Indian sákthi- n. (= av. haxti-) `Schenkel' (*skak-thi-, idg. *skn̥g-ti-; das -thi- after Old Indian ásthi- `bone', above S. 783); khañjati `hinkt' (mind. for *skañj-), khañja- `hinkend', khañjana-m. `Bachstelze';

    gr. σκάζω (only present and Imp.) `hinke' (*skn̥gi̯ō); mir. scingim `spring' is probably reshuffling from air. scend- `spring' (see under ĝhengh- `schreiten');

    aisl. skakkr `hinkend, slant, skew', schwed. dial. skinka `hinken'; without anl. s-: ahd. hinkan `hinken', Denomin. mhd. hanken ds.;

    germ. *skanka- in norw. skonk, skank f. `Schenkel, shinbone', ags. scanca f. `Unterschenkel', mnd. schenke `Schenkel' (Demin. mhd. nhd. Schenkel), ablaut. ahd. scinkel `Schenkel', scincho m., scinca f. `Beinröhre, Schenkel', nhd. Schinken, on the other hand afries. skunka, nhd. mdartl. schunke (*skn̥g-) ds.; without s- mhd. hanke `Schenkel, hip, haunch', tirol. Henkel `Schenkel'; also spätmhd. schank m. `Gestell, Schrank for Trinkgeräte' and as. skenkjan `einschenken' (from `das vessel schief halten'), ahd. scenkan ds., mhd. schenken ds., also `give' nhd. schenken; in addition postverbal mhd.schanc `vessel from dem from = Geschenkt wird' and `gift';

    eine germ. root skēh- in aisl. skāðr `slant, skew', mhd. schǣhe `schielend' etc

References: WP. II 564 f., F. Sommer Festschr. Debrunner 425 ff.

Page(s): 930


Root / lemma: (s)kep-1

Meaning: to cover

German meaning: `decken, verdecken'

Comments: only gr. and balto-slav.

Material: Gr. σκέπας, -αος n. `cover, Hülle, Schutzdach', ion. att. σκέπη f. `cover, protection, Schirm', σκεπάζω, σκεπάω, σκέπω `bedecke, verhülle, schütze'; lit. kepùrė `Mütze', lett. cepure `Mütze, Hut; Bedeckung the Kornhaufen auf dem Felde', russ. èepéc `Haube' etc

References: WP. II 559.

Page(s): 930


Root / lemma: (s)kerb(h)-, (s)kreb(h)-, nasalized (s)kremb-

Meaning: to turn, curve

German meaning: `drehen, krümmen; also especially sich zusammenkrümmen, schrumpfen (also vor Hitze, Trockenheit), runzeln'

Comments: extension to (s)ker- `turn' (see also sker- `einschrumpfen')

Material: Gr. κάρφος n. `dry deadwood, chaff' (*kr̥bh-), κάρφη f. `trockenes wood, hay', κάρφω `lasse einschrumpfen, desiccate ', καρφαλέος `dry, hoarse', καρφύ̄νεσθαι ξηραίνεσθαι. φθείρεσθαι (under likewise) Hes.; κράμβος `eingeschrumpft, arid, dry', κράμβη f. `Kohl', κραμβαλέος `dry, roasted', κρομβόω `roast, roast' (assim. from *κραμβόω);

    lat. perhaps corbis `basket' (*`geflochten'); mir. corb `Wagen', probably originally `Wagenkorb';

    aisl. skorpinn `eingeschrumpft', skorpna `schrumpfen' (about skarpr `eingeschrumpft, mager etc', ags. scearp, ahd. scarpf `sharp' s. also S. 943 under sker- `cut, clip'); nas. mhd. schrimpf ` scratch ', mhd. schrimpfen `rümpfen, zusammenschrumpfen' = aisl. skreppa `sich zusammenziehen, ausgleiten', dän. skrumpe = nhd. schrumpfen, norw. skramp `mageres creature', skrumpa `magere cow', engl. shrimp `toddler' (besides with germ. -mm-: ags. scrimman `sich zusammenziehen, schrumpfen');

    (about nhd. Schärpe, bair. schärpfen `Gürtel', ndl. sjerp, engl. scarf ds., spätahd. scherbe `Tasche', nd. schrap `Tasche', aisl. skreppa `Rucksack' s. Meyer-Lübke3 7723, Kluge-Goetze16 653, Holthausen Awn. Wb. 257: all from lat. scirpea `Binsentasche');

    nisl. herpa-st `sich zusammenkrampfen', harpa `kneifen', aisl. munn-herpa `Hexe', schwed. dial.harpa i hop `zusammenziehen', norw. hurpe `altes Weib'; nhd. schweiz. harpf `magere cow, böses Weib'; here aisl. harpa, ags. hearpe, ahd. har(p)fa `Harfe' (from the hakigen Krümmung);

    ahd. (h)rimfan, rimpfan `rugare, contrahere', nhd. rümpfen, mnd. rimpen `runzeln, crook', ags. *hrimpan, ge-hrumpen `wrinkly', hrympel `wrinkle', mnd. ramp `cramp', mhd. rampf `cramp', aisl. hreppr `Distrikt', norw. ramp `magerer person', engl. dial. rump `magere cow'; (but norw. rump `abgestumpfter Berggipfel; buttocks ', mnd. rump m. `trunk, bauchiges vessel', nhd. Rumpf rather as `abgehauenes Stück' to aksl. rǫbъ `rag', ohen S. 864 f.); besides with germ. -m(m)-: mnd. ram, ramme `cramp', ags. hramma m. `cramp', aisl. hrammr `Tatze' (actually `verschrumpft'); got. hramjan `kreuzigen', ags. hremman `hinder, belästigen', ndl. remmen `hemmen, bremsen';

    with the Vokalstellung kreb-: aisl. hrapi, norw. dän. rape `Zwergbirke' (`*crippled '); to mir. cruibhe `ein Baumname' (*krobi̯o-); then (with the imagining of the gekrümmten Finger) norw. rapse `zusammenscharren', nd. rapsen `hastig ergreifen', ags. ge-hrespan ` rend ', ahd. raspōn `zusammenraffen', hrespan `pluck, raffen' (sp from ps); without -s: norw. rapa `zusammenraffen', mnd.rapen, mhd. nhd. raffen `raffen', norw. schwed. rappa `an sich reißen, schnappen' = nd. rappen ds.;

    aisl. hreppa `receive', ags. hreppen `anrühren', mnd. reppen ds.;

    lit. skur̃bti `verkümmern, grieve ', lett. skurbinât `in die Runde drehen bis zum Schwindligwerden', skùrbt `schwindlig become', skur̃btiês `sich drehen'; nasalized lit. skramblỹs `small dickleibiger person, Zwerg', apr. (with p) sen-skrempūsnan f. Akk. `wrinkle'; with the Vokalstellung *skreb-: lit. skrembù, skrèbti `dry sein or become', skrebė́ti `rustle (vontrockenem straw)', old skreblỹs `Filz', lett. skreblis `einfältiger person, hartgewordener (verfilzter) Pelz';

    without s-: lit. kremblỹs `eine Pilzart' (probably `wrinkly' or `faltig'); with p-: lett. krum̃pa `Falte', krum̃pêt `einschrumpfen', lit. krumplỹs `Fingerknöchel' (also krumslỹs, lett. krum̃slis, skrum̃slis ds., also `gristle, Knorren'), apr. krumslus `Knöchel am Finger';

    russ. skórblyj `zusammengeschrumpft', skorbnutь `sich krummen'; koróbitь `crook', refl. ` crook oneself, zusammenziehen, zusammenschrumpfen', nasal. aksl. krǫpъ `small (contractus)', krǫpě-jǫ, -ti `sich zusammenziehen';

    about lit. kar̃bas `basket', russ. kórob, wruss. koróba ds., apr. carbio f. `Mühlenkasten', lit. kar̃bija `basket', aksl. krabьji `arcula' s. Trautmann 117 f.

References: WP. II 588 ff.

Page(s): 948-949


Root / lemma: (s)ker-dh-, (s)kor-dh-

Meaning: small, miserable

German meaning: `kümmerlich, klein; verkümmern'

Material: Old Indian kr̥dhú- `verkürzt, verstümmelt, small, mangelhaft' (comparative kradhīyaṁs-, Superlativ kradhiṣṭha-), á-skr̥dhōyu- `not verkürzt, not kärglich'; gr. σκυρθάλιος νεανίσκος Hes., σκύρθαξ μεῖραξ, ἔφηβος Hes., lakon. (with σ = θ) κυρσάνιος `young person', compare κυρσίον μειράκιον Hes.; lit. skurstù, skurdaũ, skur̃sti `verkümmern, in Wachstum zurückbleiben', nus-kur̃dęs `in Wachstum verkümmert'.

References: WP. II 590;

See also: to (s)ker- `cut, clip' as `gestutzt'.

Page(s): 949


Root / lemma: sker-(d)-

Meaning: to defecate

German meaning: `cacāre; Mist, Kot of Leibes'

Material: Av. sairya- ` manure, crap, muck, droppings', mpers. sargōn, np. sargīn ds.;

    gr. σκῶρ, σκατός `ordure', whereof σκωρία `Schlacke';

    lat. mūscerda `Mäusekot'; sūcerda `Schweinekot', bū-, ovi-cerda haben cerda for *scerda durch false Zerlegung from mū[s]scerda; aksl. skarędъ `ekelhaft' entscheidet dafür freilich nicht, compare Old Indian chr̥nátti, chardayati `erbricht, speit from', mir. sceirdim `speie from', as d-extension unseressk̂er-;

    aisl. skarn, ags. scearn, afries skern, nd. scharn `crap, muck, droppings';

    lett. sãrn̨i Pl. `Schlacken, Menstrua, Excremente', lit. šarwai `Menstrua'; proto slav.. *serǫ (*seri̯ō), *sьrati `cacāre' (e.g. Serb. sȅrem, srȁti), russ. sór `crap, muck, droppings', etc

    hitt. šakkar n., Gen. šaknaš `ordure, Exkremente', šaknu-u̯ant `impure, unclean'.

References: WP. II 587 f., WH. II 133 f., Trautmann 303, Frisk Indogerm. 25 f.

Page(s): 947-948


Root / lemma: (s)ker-1

Meaning: to shrink, wrinkle; dry, thin

German meaning: as basis von Worten for `einschrumpfen, runzeln; rauhe Haut, Schorf, Kruste; vertrocknet, mager, verkümmert'

Comments: probably to sker-3.

Material: A. Unerweitert in norw. schwed. skare `hart gefrorene Kruste auf dem Schnee'? russ. skorá etc `skin, Tierhaut';

    B. with Gutt.-extension: norw. dial. skarka `frozen crust', skjerkna `durch Kälte hard become'; norw. dial. skrekling `weakling', skrakal `gebrechlich, kränklich', nd. schräkel `verkrüppeltes creature ', mhd. waltschrechel, -schreckel `fairy demon, ghost, Fauun'; norw. skråna (*skrahnan) `verschrumpfen', skråen `dry', mnd. schrā (*skrēha-) `arid, mager', nhd. schrāh (Nord-Franken) ds., schrähelin (Oberpfalz) `zauberisches creature, Wichtlein', aisl. skrǣling(j)ar (*skrēhila-) Pl. `Eskimos', norw. skrælen `erbärmlich', isl. skrælna `schrumpfen' ostfries. verschrālen ds.; aisl. skrā f. (skrahō) `Stück dürren Leders etc';

    C. with Dental-extension: norw. dial. skranta `mager become' (etc); mhd. schraz, with germ. d: ahd. scrato `larvae, lares mali, pilosus', nhd. wood, forest-schratt, with germ. tt: aisl. skratti `monstrum, Zauberer', schwed. skratte `fairy demon, ghost, ghost', ahd. scraz, screz, mhd. schraz, schrez `fairy demon, ghost', nhd. bair. schrätz `in Wachstum zurückgebliebener Mensch'; norw. skrinn (*skrenÞa-) `arid, mager, unfruchtbar'; skreda `weakling', mnd. schrāde `thin, mager, kümmerlich'; lit.skrentù, skręsti `sich with einer trockenen Kruste beziehen';

    D. eine bare in Germ. vorliegende u-basis seems aisl. skrǫggr `Fuchs', norw. skrogg `wolf', isl. skröggur `Greis', schwed. dial. skragge `devil', mhd. schröuwel ds. (germ. *skrawwa-), aisl. skriūpr `gebrechlich, mürbe';

    Dentalerweiterung: aisl. hrūðr m. `scurf, scab', as. hrūtho m., ahd. rūda, riudī `Raude, Räude', aisl. skrydda `geschrumpfte skin'; alit. skraudùs `brüchig, rough', skraudù, skraùsti `rough become';

    in the case of here lit. krenkù, krèkti ` curdle, coagulate, harden ', lett. krecēt ds., -ties `lumpy, klunkerig become', kręcumi `Überbleibsel, spawn of frogs ' as `einschrumpfen'?

References: WP. II 565 f.

Page(s): 933


Root / lemma: (s)ker-2, skerǝ- : skrē-

Meaning: to spring, to turn

German meaning: `springen, herumspringen', also and actually `(sich) drehend bewegen, schwingen'

Comments: not to separate from (s)ker- `turn'

Material: Old Indian kiráti (kariṣyati, kīryátē, kīrṇa-) `streut from, vergießt, wirft, schleudert'; vi-kira, vi-ṣkira `Scharrer, ein bird from dem Hühnergeschlecht'; osset. k`álịn `schütte from';

    gr. σκαίρω (*skr̥i̯ō) `spring, hüpfe, dances', σκάρος n., σκαρθμός `Sprung', καρθμοί κινήσεις Hes., σκάρος m. `ein Meerfisch', actually `Springer'; σκαρίς f. `Springwurm' Hes.; ablaut. σκιρτάω `spring'; with anl. - (bloßer suggestion?) ἀσκαρίζω `spring, zapple', wherefore ἀσκαρίς, -ίδος `small Eingeweidewurm, Larve einer Wassermücke';

    ahd. scerōn `bratty sein', mhd. scher(e)n `hurry', nhd. sich scheren `sich packen', mnd. scheren `spotten, höhnen' and `run, hurry', and. scern n. `illusio, subsannatio', ahd. scern m. `Scherz, Mutwille' (scirno `histrio'), aisl. skāri m. `young Möwe', skirja f. `young cow', mnd. scherke `kind of small Möwe' (vom unsteten Flug);

    skrē- perhaps in mhd. schrǣjen, schræn `spray, whisk ', schrā f. `hail, hoarfrost, snow', schrāt m. `Wasserstäubchen, drip' and aisl. skrǣ-ma-sk `flee', schwed. skrämma `frighten' tr. (`aufspringen make');

    ags. secge-scēre `cicada locusta', compare lit. skėrỹs, skėrẽlis ` locust, grasshopper ' (: gr. σκαρίς, ἀσκαρίς); bait. FlN *Skērijā > wruss. Šèara; арг. Skarra (*Skarā); aksl. skorъ `quick, fast'; very doubtful aksl. ašterъ, russ. jášèerica `Eidechse' (anl. a- die idg. preposition *ō??);

    eine extension skreg- in ahd. screcchōn `auffahren, aufspringen, hüpfen', hewi-screcko ` locust, grasshopper ', Kaus. screcken `aufspringen make, bange make', nhd. schrecken etc; Wissmann Nom. postverb. 190.

    d-extension (s)kre-d- and (s)ker-d-:

    Ai kūrdati `springt, hüpft' is nichtidg.; gr. κράδη f. `Schwinge, Wipfel', κραδάω `swing, brandish, schwanke', κραδαίνω ds.; κόρδᾱξ `lustiger Tanz in the Komödie', (σ)κορδίνημα `Schwindel', σκορδινᾶσθαι `sich gähnend recken, aufgeregt sein' (probably also κορδύλη `club, mace, joint, bulge;  bead;  lip;  torus;  wreath;  roll;  bulb, Kopfputz'); alb. hardh-ëlë, -ëjë, -itsë `Eidechse' (*skord-); lat. cardō `Türangel; Wendepunkt' (`Drehpunkt'; from the un extension root also ags. heorr(a), aisl. hjarri `Türangel' and with idg. t: ahd. scerdo `fishing rod');

    mir. ceird `das Schreiten', air. fo-cerdaim `werfe', cymr. cerddaf `wandle' (with other Vokalstellung abret. credam `vado'), next to which without d das Kausat. cuirithir (*kor-ei̯e-trai) `wirft, legt, places '; with cymr. go-gerdd f. `Burleske' compare nhd. Scherz;

    aisl. hrata `fall, waver, hurry', ags. hratian ds. (besides also hraÞian, hradian with idg. t; ahd. hardilla `Bachstelze' = `*Wipperin'); mhd. razzen `rage, clamor' (and - probably secondary - `rattle, clash', as mnd. ratelen `clatter', ags. hratele `Klapperschote'); mhd. scherzen `fröhlich spring, sich vergnügen', mhd. schërz `pleasure, game', nhd. scherzen, Scherz, mhd.scharz, schurz m. `Sprung'; aisl. skart n. `kostbare Kleidung', norw. skertast `spaßen', skarta `leichtfertiges Frauenzimmer'; perhaps ahd. hros ags. hors etc `steed', see above S. 583 f.;

    lit.-žem. pakìrsti, preterit pakìrdo `from dem sleep auffahren';

    eine b-extension in: aisl. hrapa `hinabstürzen', intr. `hurry', mnd. rapp `rash, hasty, violent', sik reppen `hurry'; mir. crip, crib (with bb) `quick, fast';

    eine s-extension in: lat. scurra ` merrymaker, Witzbold; Stutzer' (: ahd. scern, basic form skʷr̥sā); presumably in aisl. skjarr `shy, timorous' (`*aufspringend' or `*zitternd'), skirra `frighten'; toch. В kärss- `schießen'.

References: WP. II 566 ff., WH. I 167 f., Trautmann 263, Loth RC. 43, 416 f.

Page(s): 933-935


Root / lemma: (s)ker-3

Meaning: to turn, bend

German meaning: `drehen, biegen'

Comments: (see also 1. (s)ker- `einschrumpfen' and 2. (s)ker- `spring')

Material: A. Av. skarǝna- `rund', skārayat̃-raϑa- EN., actually `the den Streitwagen kreisen läßt';

    alb. perhaps kërrús, kurrús `beuge, biege';

    gr. κυρτός `krumm' (old u- coloring, compare russ. kortoèki, as well as ksl. sъ-krъèiti `zusammenziehen' etc); κορωνός `gekrümmt'; κορώνη `allerlei Gekrümmtes, Gebogenes etc' (lat. Lw. corōna), perhaps as *korō[u̯]-no-s zur u-basis *(s)kereu-;

    lat. curvus `krumm, gekrümmt, gewölbt' (forms -u̯o-); cortīna `round vessel, Kessel; the Dreifuß Apollos with dem Kessel darauf; Himmelswölbung'; from einem participle *kr̥-to- `gedreht' derived;

    mir. cor, Akk. Pl. curu `Kreise', cymr. cor-wynt, bret. cor-uent `turbo';

    russ. kórtoèki Pl. f. `hockende, kauernde position ', klr. kortáty śa `sich durchhelfen, rackern' (if `* crook oneself '? compare gr. κυρτός).

    α) guttural extensions:

    ker-k-, besides kir-k- (from redupl. *ki-kro-) and (s)krek-:

    Doubtful Old Indian kŕ̥kāṭa- n. `Halsgelenk', kr̥ka- m. (uncovered) `larynx';

    gr. κίρκος m. `ring' (κιρκόω `feßle with einem ring'), gewöhnlich (seit Homer) κρίκος (in addition κιρσός, κρισσός, dor. κριξός m. Poll. Hes. `Krampfader' as `vortretende Aderringe'); lat. circus `Zirkellinie, Kreis in the Astronomie; esp. die (runde) racecourse ', preposition circum `ringsumheretc', circā (after suprā, extrā); the umbr. Monatsname kurc̨lasiu as `circulāriō'?;

    (s)krek- in nd. schrēge, schräge, mhd. schræge ` slantwise ', mnd. mhd. schrage `kreuzweisestehende Holzfüße'; klr. kórkuš m. `Nacken', korkoši Pl. `Achseln', èech. krk ` neck ' etc (compare above Old Indian kr̥ka-); ksl. sъ-krъèiti `zusammenziehen', russ. kórèu, -itь ds., `Gesichter cut, clip', kórèa, korè `cramp', okorèa `gebogener Teil of Schlittens', èech. dial. krkoška `Knorren am wood', krkva `wrinkle, Falte' etc; also wruss. korch `fist' etc from *kъrk-so-?;

    nasalized (s)krenk-: presumably russ. krjákatь `eine andere Wendung nehmen', krjaè `Knebelholz', krjáèitь `festbinden'; ksl. kruèina (*krǫèina) `χολέρα, epilepsia', sloven. u-kroknem, -niti ` crook oneself ', u-kroèiti ds., èech. kruèina `broom', poln. kręcz (*krǫèь) `Kopfdrehen, Schwindel; (old) Starrkrampf';

    with -g-: (s)ker-g-.

    norw. hork (aisl. *hǫrk f.) `Weidenband', dial. also `runzeliges Weib', herkja `zusammenbinden', hurkl `Unebenheit, Knorren', harkal `knorrig'; russ. korgá `verkrüppelter tree', koržávyj `verschrumpft, verkümmert, hard' (etc);

    nasalized (s)kreng-: aisl. hrøkkva (hrǫkk) `sich kräuseln, crook, zusammenschrumpfen' (*hrenkwan), Kaus. hrøkkva `schlingen, kräuseln' (*krankwjan), dän. rynke `runzeln', aisl. hrukka, mhd. runke `wrinkle'; m. anlaut sk- aisl. skrukka `runzeliges Weib', norw. skrukk `wrinkle', schwed. skrynka `runzeln', ags. scrincan `sich zusammenziehen, verschrumpfen, verwelken', mnd. schrinken `sich zusammenziehen'; gäl. sgreang `wrinkle' is perhaps ags. Lw.;

    as `verquerte, kreuzweis gestellte Latten': mnd. mhd. schrank(e) `Gitter, fence, Verschluß', nhd. Schrank, Schranke, mnd. mhd. schrenken `verschränken, beschränken, hinder'; ahd. scranc `deceit', screnchan `to collapse bringen', ags. screncan `ein leg stellen, cheat, deceive';

    (s)kregh-, nasalized: (s)krengh-:

    umbr. cringatro, krenkatrum, krikatru `cinctum'; urgem. *hrengaz in finn. rengas, aisl. hringr, ags. as. ahd. hring `ring', aisl. hringja `small round vessel' and `Spange' = ahd. rinka, ags. hringe `Spange', ahd. as. hringon `ringeln, einen Kreis bilden'; in addition probably as `Rundstab', got. hrugga `staff', ags. hrung f. `Leitersprosse, Speiche', engl. rung `Leitersprosse', mnd. mhd. runge `Wagenrunge'; aksl. krǫgъ `Kreis', ksl. kruglъ, okruglъ `rund' etc;

    β) Dentalerweiterung kert- `turn', see above S. 584 f.

    γ) Labial extensions (s)kereb(h)-, (s)kremb- `turn' see under esp. Schlagwort.

    B. i-basis (s)krei-:

    Lat. scrinium `rollenförmige Kapsel, shrine' (*round container);

    lit. skriejù (for *skrejù), skriẽti `in Kreise bewegen, in Bogen fliegen', lett. skrìenu (skreju), skrìet `run, fliegen', alit. skrelis `Fittich', aksl. krilo (*krī-dlo-) n. `Flügel'; lit. kreĩvas `gewunden, slant, skew', ostlit. kraĩvas `slant, skew', apý-kraivis `gekrümmt', ablaut.krìvis `schief gewachsener Mensch'; apr. grēiwa-kaulin Akk. `Rippe' (`krummer bone'; dissim. from krēiwa-kaulin), russ. (etc) kriv `krumm', aksl. razkriviti `crook'; lett. krails ` bent, curved, gekrümmt'; lett. kreĩlis `Linkhand', ḱeĩris (dissim. from *kreiris) ds., lit. kairỹs ds. (dissim. from *krairỹs); aksl. krinica `vessel, crock, pitcher', okrinъ ` paten ', russ. kriníca `Kufe, stream, brook, wellspring';

    α) With Dentalen:

    (s)krei-t-: lat. crīsō, -āre `with den Schenkeln wackeln (beim Beischlaf; from the wife, woman)', *creitsō or *crītsō; mir. crith `Zittern, fever', cymr. cryd `Wiege, fever', with s-: ysgryd, bret. skrija `vor fear tremble'; aisl. hrīð f. `Anfall, storm; Zwischenzeit, period (of time) ', ags. hrīÞ f. `storm', ahd. (h)rīdōn `tremble', ablaut. (h)rit(t)o `fever', ags. hrið `fever', aisl. hreiðr n. `nest' (`*Flechtwerk'); from dem concept the bogenförmigen Bewegung is verständlich aisl. skrīða `sich langsam vorwärts bewegen, kriechen' (from Würmern), ags. scrīÞan, as. scrīthan and skrīdan, ahd. scrītan `schreiten', ahd. scrit `Schritt', aisl. skriðr `run, flow, Vorwärtsschreiten', ags. scriÞe, scride m. `run, flow', skrid n. `Wagen'; lett. kraitât `lurch'; lit. skrieèiù, skriẽsti `turn, in Kreis herumdrehen', skrýtis `Radfelge', apr. scritayle ds., lit. apskritùs `rund', skritulỹs `Kreis, Kniescheibe', lett. skritulis `wheel', lit. skritinỹs `ball, Globus'.

    (s)kreid-:

    Lit. skrindù, skrìsti `fliegen, kreisen', skridinė́ti `kreisen (from birds)', skrýdauti `in Kreise gehn', skriedžiù, skriẽsti `fliegen', skraidaũ, -ýti `hin and her in Bogen fliegen', skraidùs `quick, fast'; lett. skraidelêt `umherlaufen', skrìedinât `antreiben'.

    β) With Labialen: (s)kreip-:

    Aisl. hreife m. `Handwurzel', hreifa `swing'; lit. kreipiù, kreipti `turn, wenden', kraipaũ, -ýti, Iter. krypstù, krỹpti `sich drehen'; aksl. skrěnja `εὐτραπελία, scurrilitas' (*skroipni̯ā); slav. *krě(p)sъ (*kroip-so-) in aksl. vъz-krěšǫ, -iti `auferstehen lassen (from den Toten)', ksl. krěsъ m. `τροπή, temporum mutatio', serb. krȉjes `Johannisfeuer'; ablaut. aksl.vъs-krьsnǫti `auferstehen'.

    (s)kreib-: aisl. hrip n. ` wooden vessel', mengl. rip `creel', ahd. href ` pannier '(originally `Geflochtenes'); lett. kribas Pl. `netting in sled '.

    s-extension (s)krei-s-, esp. from `vibrierender Bewegung, (oneself) shake'.

    Mir. cressaim `shake, swing, brandish' (*kristō);

    got. af-, us-hrisjan `ab-, ausschütteln', ags. as. hrissan `to shake, tremble'; aisl. hrīs n. ` shrubbery, rod', ags. hrīs n. `twig, branch, rod', ahd. hrīs `Reis, rod, deadwood, shrubbery, bush'; norw. risla `bush, twig, branch, Wipfel eines Baumes; Ähre', schwed. ressna `(Hopfen)ranke', ressn `Docke gehechelten Flachses' etc; lat. crīnis `hair, esp. Haupthaar' (*crisnis, compare:) cris-ta `the comb am Kopfe the animal', aisl. hrista `shake', mnd. risten `flax, wattle, braid'; ahd. rīsta, nhd. Reiste `zusammengedrehter tussock, Bündel überhaupt'; with : nd. riste, risse ds., ndl. riste (and rijste) also `Traubenkamm, Rispe, row'; apr. craysi `Halm', crays `hay';

    here as p-derivative also: lat. crispus `kraus, sich kräuselnd, vibrierend', crispō, -āre `kräuseln, swing', intr. `tremble', gall. PN. Crixos, cymr. crych `kraus', bret. crech ds.; mhd. rispen `kräuseln', rispeln ds., rispe `Gezweig, shrubbery ', ahd. hrispahi `virgultum', nhd. Rispe `deadwood, Buschwerk, bundle, büschliger Blütenstand', in the Weberei `eine gewisse Lage the Fäden', engl. dial. risp `Stengel from Schlingflanzen, Ranken'.

    C. u-basis (s)kreu-:

    compare above S. 935 to gr. κορωνός; acymr. crunn, mcymr. crwnn, fem. cronn, abret. cron `rund', mir. cruind `rund', zur basic form *krundi, compare gr. κοκρυν-δακοί κυλλοί;

    sloven. krúliti `verstümmeln, rings behacken', serb. krùljav `lahm, crippled ', poln. królić (for krulić) `runzeln';

    compare also Old Indian karū́-kara- m. `whirl of Halses and Rückgrates';

    k-extension (s)kreu-k-: Old Indian kruñcati (Dhātup.) `krümmt sich'; lat. crux `Marterholz' (originally `round picket, pole'); ir. crūach f. `heap, barn, haystack, hill', gall. *krouka ` acme, apex ', worfrom *krōkka, krūk(k)a ds. (v. Wartburg FEW. 2, 1367), cymr. crug m. `cippus, tumulus', corn. abret. cruc `hill', nbret. crug, abrit.-lat. Penno-crucium PN.; aisl. hryggr `backbone, spine', ags. hrycg, as. hruggi, ahd. (h)rukki `back'; aisl. hrūga f. `heap', hraukr `heap', ags. hrēac `Kornhaufe', ndl. rook ds., changing through ablaut ags. cornhrycce f. `Korndieme', engl. rick ds.; lit.kriáuklė `Meerschnecke', kriáuklas `Rippe'; lett. kruknêt `gekrümmt sitzen';

    A t-extension seems krū̆t- `Körperwölbung' above S. 624.

References: WP. II 568 ff., WH. I 220 f., 233 f., 279 f., 317 f., 293, 296 f., Trautmann 140 f., 267 f., Loth RC. 43, 416 f.

Page(s): 935-938


Root / lemma: (s)ker-4, (s)kerǝ-, (s)krē-

Meaning: to cut

German meaning: `schneiden'

Material: I. A. Old Indian ava-, apa-skara- `Exkremente (Ausscheidung)'; kr̥ṇāti, kr̥ṇōti `verletzt, tötet' (lex.), utkīrṇa- `ausgeschnitten, eingeritzt', samutkīrṇa- `durchbohrt'; Old Indian cárman-, av. èarǝman- `fell, fur, skin'; presumably Old Indian kr̥vi- (unbel.) `ein Webergerät' (: russ. dial. èervь `sickle', lit. kir̃vis `axe' (?);

    arm. k`orem `I scratch', k`erem `scratch, schabe';

    gr. κείρω (κερῶ, ἐκάρην, κέκαρμαι, καρτός) `abschneiden; shave, shear; abfressen', κέρμα n. `Schnitzel, small Münze', κορμός m. `(abgeschnittener) clot, chunk, trunk', κορμάζω `zerstückle'; κόρις m. `bedbug' (= russ. korь f. `Motte': `incisive, biting, zerbeißend'); Gen. καρός `Nichts' in τίω δέ μιν ἐν καρὸς αἴσῃ, compare also καριμοίρους τοὺς ἐν μηδεμιᾳ μοίρᾳ... Hes., further ἀκαρί n. `Milbe', ἀκαρής, ἀκαριαῖος `winzig', Hes.; `incisive' seems die basic meaning from κάρνος and κάρ `louse' Hes.; to latter perhaps κάρον, κάρος `Kümmel' (from the Ähnlichkeit of Kümmelkornes with einer louse); with gr. κώρυκος `leather sack' compare ir. curach `Hautboot', cymr. corwg, cwrwg ds. from *kŏrukos; compare further aisl. hǫrr `Leinenkleid', ahd. harra `sack, bag'; with einer meaning `schneidender Hohn' here κέρτομος `höhnend', κερτομέω `höhne, lästere' (*κερ-στομος `ein Lästermaul habend'? in 1. Glied ein root noun [s]ker-, or ein -[e]s-stem *ker-s-); σκέραφος, κέραφος `reprimand' Hes., σκέρ-βολος λοίδορος, σκερβολεῖ ἀπατᾳ Hes., σκερβόλλω `schmähe';

    alb. hirrë f. `Molke' (*sker-nā; das h after harr); Lidén KZ. 61, 9 f.;

    alb. sh-kjer `reiße apart', harr (*skor-n-) `cut, bite from, jäte', tsharɛ `spoil, verwüsten, sich separate', tshartës `Scharfrichter', lengthened grade korr, kuarr (*kēr-n-ō) `schneide ab, ernte';

    lat. corium `dicke skin, bag, leather'; carō, carnis f. `Fleisch', originally `Stück Fleisch' as Pl. carnēs; umbr. karu `part', Dat. karne, Abl. Pl. karnus `carnibus', osk. carneis `partis'; umbr. kartu `distribuito'; lat. curtus `verkürzt, verstümmelt' (*kr̥-tó-);

    air. scar(a)im (*skerā-mi) `I slit, separate', cymr. ysgar `Trennen', gwa-sgar `scatter'; Kaus.-iterative air. scu(i)rim `spanne die Pferde ab', scor ` paddock for abgespannte Zugtiere'; auf einem to-participle in addition based on mir. aurscartad (*air-uss-scart-) `Fegen, Reinigen', diuscart(a)im (*dī-uss-scart-) `entferne'; cymr. ysgarthu, dyscarthu `clean', ysgarth `rubbish, Spülicht', carthen `purgatoria' under likewise; mir. scairt `Netz um die Gedärme, Zwerchfell'; ir. cert `small'; nicht certainly belegt is mir. coire `sword' (see under got. haírus); ir. curach, cymr. corwg, cwrwg `Hautboot' to gr. κώρυκος? see above;

    aisl. skera `cut, clip, prick, abmachen', ahd. sceran `shave, shear, abschneiden', ags. scieran ds., as. sker-sahs `Schermesser'; ahd. scero `Maulwurf', nhd. Schermaus, norw. vatn-skjer under likewise `Spitzmaus' (compare under ags. scierfe-mūs `Spitzmaus'); Kaus.-Iter. ahd. scerian, as. skerjan, ags. scierian `allot, decide, define, ordain, determine'; aisl. skǫr f. `hair; edge; end', ags. scearu f. `das Haarschneiden; Anteil', ahd. scara `Heeresabteilung, troop, multitude, crowd etc', mnd. schare f. ds. (out of it aisl.skǫr f., skari m. `troop, multitude, crowd, bulk, mass'); with not klarer meaning-Entw. ahd. haram-skara, as. harm-skara, ags. hearm-scearu ` punishment, plague';

    ahd. scar, scaro m., scara f. `Pflugschar', ags. scear m. n. ds., norw. skere (*skarjan-) ds.; aisl. sker n. (*skarja-) `Klippe' (out of it mnd. schere f. `Felszacke, Klippe', nhd. Schäre); ablaut. ags. score `(felsiges) seashore, Küste', scorian `overhang, from Klippen under likewise', mnd. schore, schare `Küste, bank, border, shore', next to which with -rr-: ahd. scorra `schroffer Fels', scorrēn `hervorragen, from Felsen or bone';

    aisl. skarðr ` damages, verstummelt, verringert', as. skard `zerhauen, verwundet', ahd. scart, mhd. schart `zerhauen, schartig', ags. sceard ds., aisl. skarð n. `Scharte, hole, lack, damage, pity', mhd. nhd. scharte, ags. sceard n. `piece, fragment', ablaut. aisl. skorða f. `cloven staff', `am oberen end gespaltene pad' (compare in similar meaning mnd. schore, schare `Strebepfahl, pad' = engl. shore);

    aisl. skor f. ` incision, Kerbe, crack', mnd. schore m. ds., nnd. schör, schär `frail, breakable, brittle ';

    aisl. skyr n. (*skurja-) ` coagulated milk' (: skera-sk `sich divide = curdle, coagulate, harden '); skurðr m. `das Schneiden'; ahd. skerm, skirm `shield (`*from Häuten'), protection, Bedeckung', mhd. scherm, schirm, ahd. skirmen (*skirmjan), as. biskirmian `beschirmen';

    s-los perhaps aisl. hǫrund n. `Fleisch'; mhd. häre, härwer `herb' ('incisive vom taste'; urgerm. *har-wa in finn. karvas `herb'); got. haírus, aisl. hjǫrr, ags. heoru, as. heru m. `sword' (see above mir. coire);

    lengthened grade ahd. scār, scāra, Pl. scāri `Schere', as. skāra f. ds., ags. scēar `Pflugscher', Pl. scerero, aisl. skǣri n. Pl. `Schere', hrǣ-skǣrr `in Leichen hackend (eagle)'; mhd. schuor f. `Schur', aisl. skø̄ra `fight, struggle';

    lit. skiriù, skìrti, lett. šḱir̃t `separate, divide', lit. karnà f. `Lindenbast', lett. àizkar̂t `anrühren'; lit. kę̃ra, kẽro, kérti `sich loslösen'; skarà `scrap, shred, rag'; apr. kērmens `body' (see under); lit. kir̃vis, lett. cirvis `axe'; presumably vom concept the abgespaltenen Hautschuppe from: lit. karaĩ Pl. `Steinpocken' (slav. Lw.?), prakarùs `maserig, vom wood';

    russ. korь f. ` measles ' and `Motte' (`*Schererin'); aruss. kora `bark', russ. etc korá `bark, crust'; whereof among others ksl. koricę Pl. `Zimt', russ. koríca ds., kórka `bowl, bark, crust', korětь `hard become', bulg. koráv `steif, hard', serb. o-kòreti se `steif, hard become' etc (aksl.korьcъ `ein Hohlmaß', russ. koréc `Mühlkasten; Schöpfkelle etc', slov. korec `Körbchen under likewise'; perhaps to Old Indian carú- `Kessel' etc, s. kʷer-);

    russ. dial. èervь `sickle' (= lit. kir̃vis, Old Indian kr̥vi-, see above); bsl. *kermen- and keru̯a- n. `belly, body' in apr. kērmens m. `body'; slav. *èervo n. in aksl. èrěvo `lower abdomen, belly', russ. èerëvo ds. etc (originally `ausgeschnittene Tiereingeweide'); doubtful aksl. èrěvьjь `sandal', russ. old èerevьji Pl. `Schuhe' etc (*`skin, leather'?);

    ksl. krъnъ `verstümmelt', okrъniti `amputieren', russ. dial. kórnyj `from kleinem growth, short', kornátь `stutzen', (etc = Old Indian -kīrṇa-); presumably (as `abgeschnittene shaft, pole') aksl. krъma `Steuerruder, Hinterende of Schiffes', r. kormá `Schiffshinterteil' etc; perhaps r.-ksl.èrěnъ `Handgriff', russ. èéren `Heft, Stiel, handle, grasp eines Messers; Pfropfen'.

    B. Dental extensions:

    α) (s)ker-d-:

    Illyr. Scordus (mons), Σκάρδον (ὄρος): lit. skardùs `steil' see under (Jokl, Eberts Reallex. 6, 37); air. scerdid `kratzt ab';

Maybe alb. (*skord-) kodrë `hill'

    after den gespaltenen Wurzelknollen: gr. σκόρ(ο)δον n. `Knoblauch', alb. hurdhë, hudhrë ds. (*skord-);

    ahd. scherze, scherzel `abgeschnittenes Stück'; ahd. scurz `short' (mhd. schürzen `kürzen', schurz `gekürztes garment', nhd. Schurz, Schürze), ags. scort `short', scortian `kürzer become, fehlen, lack' (scyrte f. `Schurz, Hemd'; engl. short `short', shirt `Hemd'), aisl. skorta `fehlen, lack', skort n., skortr m. `lack';

    with other Vokalstellung (influence of germ. *skraut-, *skrut-?) mnd. schratelen `carve, slit';

maybe alb. (*scyrte) shkurt `short'

Note:

illyr. TN Scordisci meant: ` men with shirts, kilts (like women)' hence alb. (*skodra) kodra 'hill' actually meant: '(*short) low mountain, low hill' [common drop of initial s- in alb. sk > k]

    lit. skerdžiù, sker̃sti `(Schweine) schlachten', lett. šḱę̄ržu, šḱe'rst `split, aufschneiden', lit. skérdžiu, skérdėti `Risse bekommen', ablaut. skardýti `schroten'; skardùs `steil', skar̃dis m. `steiles bank, border, shore' (see above illyr. Scordus), skurdùs `painful', nu-skur̃des `zerlumpt', ostlit. skurstù, skur̃sti `lack leiden'; lett. skārdît `split up, cut up, divide', lit. suskir̃dusios kójos `aufgesprungene Füße', apr. scurdis `Bicke, Mühleisen', aksl. o-skrъdъ m. `tool zum Behauen the Steine', russ. oskórd `big hatchet', skorodá `harrow', èech. oskrd `Mühleisen, Spitzhammer';nas. lit. skrándas `alter Pelz', skrañdis `Viehmagen', lett. skrandas Pl. `rag, clout', apr. scrundos Pl. `Schere'.

    Über sker-dh- see below esp. Schlagwort.

    β) (s)ker-t-, (s)kre-t-:

    Old Indian kr̥ntáti newer kartati `cuts, slices' = av. kǝrǝntaiti (besides kǝrǝnaoiti = Old Indian kr̥ṇōti, above S. 938) `cuts, slices; schindet'; participle Perf. Pass. kr̥ttá- (av. -kǝrǝsta-); Old Indian kartanam `das Schneiden', kr̥tí- m. or f. `knife', av. karǝti- `knife', npers. kārd ds.; Old Indian karta- m. `separation, Unterscheidung', kartá- m. `pit, pothole, hole' (kāṭá `depth, ground' out of it mind. Entw.), perhaps av. -kaša- `Bucht'; es können partizipiale to-formations zur the abbreviated root form sker- vorliegen; Old Indian kŕ̥tti- f. `fell, fur', ni-kr̥tti- `Niedermetzlung'; Old Indian kŕ̥tvaḥ `...Male', -kŕ̥t e.g.sa-kŕ̥t, av. ha-kǝrǝt̃ `once', originally `with einem Hieb', as in Old Indian sakr̥d-āchinná- `auf einmalabgetrennt', av. hakǝrǝt̃-jan- `auf einmal tötend' (compare aksl. kratъ `mal', lit. kar̃tas ds.);

    Old Indian kaṭu- (mi. from *kart-u-) `(*incisive) sharp, biting' (: lit. kartùs `bitter');

    arm. k`ert`em `pull die skin ab, schäle ab';

    alb. kjëth `schere' (*kertō);

    lat. cortex `bark, Borke', scortum `fell, fur, Tierhaut, Hure', cēna `meal' = osk. kersnu `cēna', kerssnaís `cēnis' (*kert-snā `share'); umbr. śesna `cēnam', c̨ersnatur `cēnāti';

    ahd. herdo `vellus', ags. heorda m. `fell, fur', nhd. schweiz. herde, härde `sheep- or goatskin '; ags. herðan Pl. `testicles' (`*Hautsack'; from *haruÞjan) with other Vokalstellung aisl. hreðjar Pl. `Hodensack'; perhaps here also got. hairÞra, ahd. herdar n., ags.hreðer m. ` intestines, entrails '; lengthened grade the 2. syllable in mnd. schrāt (-d-) `ein in the Länge abgeschnittenes Stück', schrāden `abschneiden', schrāt (-d-) ` slantwise (eine other Linieschneidend)'; at most to-participle zur basis skrē-;

    nasalized (germ. *skrenÞ-, compare Old Indian kr̥ntati): ahd. skrindan, -tan `break, crack, Risse bekommen', norw. skrinda `Kerbe'; zero grade ahd. scrunda, -ta `col, gap, crack', nhd. Schrund(e), norw. skrunda `hutch'; with gradation mhd. schranz(e) `crack, slit, geschlitztes garment ' (ahd. *scrantussa, compare scruntussa `crack'); wfries. schrander `sharp' (from Verstand), etc; without s-: mnd. uprinden `aufbersten' (from Wunden);

    lit. kertù kir̃sti `haue sharp, schlage violent', kir̃stas `beaten', lett. cę̄̀rtu, cìrst `hew, hit, hacken'; lit. kir̃tis `Hieb', apr. kirtis ds., lit. ker̃slas `Aderlaßeisen' (*kert-s-lo-), besides ker̃stas `Lanzette'; apr. kersle `hoe, axe' (= russ. èéresló etc); lit. karsa `cave'(*kartsā), lit. kartùs, apr. Nom. Pl. kārtai `bitter'; apr. scordo (consigns stordo) `Schwarte' i.e. `menschliche Kopfhaut' (balt. *skartā); lit. kertùkas `Spitzmaus' (: klr. èertéć `großeHaselmaus', compare vom einfachen *sker- ahd. scero `Maulwurf' etc); lit. kar̃tas `mal', víens kart víens `einmal eins', lett. viênkā̀ršs `simple, just' (see above to Old Indian kŕ̥tvas, -kr̥t), lit. kartà `Lage, Schicht', lett. kā̀rta `order, Schicht, Lage'; lit. kirtas `Tierlager';

    as `abgeschnittenes Stück Holz' lit. kártis ` shaft, pole', lett. kãrts ds., apr. kartano f. ds.; balt. *karta- `trough' (out of it finn. kartta ds.) in apr. pra-cartis m. ds., lit. prã-kartas ds.; besides proto slav.. *karūta- n. `trough, trough' in ksl. koryto `alveus', russ. korýto `trough, trough' etc; with durch das nasal present bedingter other Vokalstellung lit. krintù, kritaũ, krìsti `abfallen, from Blättern, Früchten' (compare Old Indian kr̥ntátram `cleft, gap, col, gap, Zerklüftung');

    aksl. na-èrъtati `ὑπογράψαι', russ.-ksl. èrъtu, èrěsti `cut, clip', russ. old o-èeresti `eine limit, boundary decide, define, ordain, determine' (etc); klr. èertéć `big, giant Haselmaus' (compare above to lit. kertùkas); klr. èeresló, poln. trzosɫo `Pflugmesser, Sech', sloven. èrė́slo, èech. tříslo `Gerberlohe'; perhaps russ. old èerešèa, mbulg. (ablaut.) o-èrьšta, o-èrъšta `tent' (if `from Fellen or bark', *k(e)rst-i̯-ā, compare Old Indian kŕ̥t-ti-); perhaps russ. (etc) èerët `Schilfrohr' (from den schneidenden Blättern); ksl. kratъ-kъ (= Old Indian kaṭu-, lit. kartùs), russ. korótkij `short' (etc); aksl. sъ-kraštǫ, -kratiti `verkürzen; sich short fassen, endigen'; aksl. kratъ in tri kraty `dreimal' etc, poln. trzy-kroć ds. (etc, see above to lit. kar̃tas `mal');

    hitt. kartāi- `abschneiden, beseitigen'.

    Über perhaps verwandte words for `quer' see under *skert-s- `quer'.

    C. guttural extension:

    *krok-no- in cymr. croen `skin', Pl. crwyn, acorn. croin ds.; croinoc `rubeta' > corn. cronek `crapaud' besides *krok-inā in gall.-lat. crocina `mastruca', aksl. kruzno, russ. korzno ds.; out of it borrows ahd. krusina, kursinna (wherefore nhd. Kürschner), afries. kersna, spätags. crus(e)ne `Pelzrock', mlat. crusina; *krokkeno- in mir. crocann, nir. croiceann `skin', bret. kroc'hen, mcorn. crōghen ds.

    D. Labial extensions:

    α) (s)kerb/h/-, (s)kreb(h)-:

    Mir. cerb `sharp, incisive', cer(b)aim `cut, bite';

    ags. sceorpan `scratch, scrape, nagen' (probably also `*cut, clip', compare sceorp `dress'); aisl. skarpr `eingeschrumpft, mager, strong, sharp', ags. scearp, as. skarp `sharp, rough, bitter', ahd.scarf, scarph, mhd. scharf, -pf `rough, incisive'; ahd. skurfen, scurphen, mhd. schür(p)fen `aufschneiden, ausweiden, (fire) anschlagen', nhd. schürfen;

    bsl. *skirbā f. `Ritze' (*skerbhā) in lett. šḱir̃ba f. `Ritze, col, gap', ablaut. šḱerbala and skarba f. `splinter' and skar̂bs (= nhd. `scharf') `sharp, rough'; in addition lit. skirbti `sauer become', lett. šḱerbs `herb, sour'; slav. *šèьrbъ m., *šèьrba f. in poln. szczerb m. `Scharte, Kerbe', slov. šèr̂b `schartig', šèŕba `Scharte' etc; russ. šèerbá f. `crack, Scharte, scar';

    bsl. *skurbā (*skorbhā) in lit. žem. skur̃bti `be in woefulness ', skur̃bė f. `ruefulness', lett. skùrbstu, skùrbt `ohnmächtig become'; slav. *skъrba f. in slov. *škŕba `Scharte, Zahnlücke', also slav. skъrbь f. in aksl. skrъbь, russ.-ksl. skъrbь, serb. skr̂b, russ. skorbь `ruefulness, care ', skórbnutь `wither, wilt, mortify', slov. skrbẹ́ti `care for, worry';

    lat. scrobis m. f. `pit, pothole'; ags. screpan `scratch, scrape', mhd. schreffen st. V. ` rend, ritzen, scratch, scrape'; aisl. skrapa (*skrapōn) `scratch, scratch, scrape, scrape', mnd. schrapen ds., mhd. schraffen `die skin ritzen, schröpfen', schrapfe (*skrappṓ) `tool zum Kratzen', whereof schrapfen `striegeln', mnd. schrappen `scrape, scratch, scrape'; mhd. schrepfen (*skrapjan), nhd. `schröpfen';

    lit. skrebė́ti `rustle, sough, rustle', lett. skrabt `hollow out, scratch, scrape, scrape', skrabinât `benagen', skribinât ds. (neologism from *skrebinat); lit. átskrabai m. Pl. `offal'; russ.-ksl.o-skrebъ `abgeschabt habend', russ. skrebú, skrestí (skrestь, also skrebátь) `scrape, scratch, scrape', Iterat. èech. škrabati `scratch, scrape';

    with Reduktionsstufe: cymr. crafu `scratch, scrape, rub, ausbeuten'; lett. kribinât `abnagen';

    lengthened grade: skrēbh-, skrōbh-, with r-suffix the name the Hainbuche (after dem gesägten leaf): alb. shko-zë (*skrēbh-r-), apr. scober-wis (*skrōbher-), lit. skrúoblas (*skrōbh-ro-), newer skroblùs, but lett. (with secondary ā) skābardis, skābarde (*skrōbhar-) `Rotbuche', s. Jokl WuS. 12, 71 ff., and compare lit. skir̃pstas under S. 945;

    zero grade gr. σκαρφᾶσθαι σκεδάννυσθαι Hes.;

    compare also gerbh-, above S. 386, and cymr. cramen S. 945.

    β) (s)kerp-, (s)krep-:

    Old Indian kr̥pāṇa- m. `sword', kr̥pāṇī f. `Schere, Dolch'; karpara- n. `shard' m. `bowl, cranium' (: apr. kerpetis `cranium', aksl. èrěpъ `shard', ahd. scirbi `shard');

    alb. karpë, karmë (*korp-n-) `Fels, Klippe' (compare lat. saxum : secō; insecure krep, shkrep `Fels, slope'); in addition thrak. Καρπάτης ὄρος `Karpaten';

    gr. καρπός `fruit' (`Abgeschnittenes, Abgepflücktes'), καρπίζομαι, καρπόομαι `ernte'; κρώπιον `sickle' (idg. *krōp-); with s- probably σκορπίος `Skorpion, ein stachliger Seefisch';

    lat. carpō, -ere `pluck, abpflücken', originally `abtrennen', gloss. scarpo i.e. excarpo `eligo', scarpinat `scripithaen' (ags. `die Henne scharrt'); carpinus `Hainbuche' etc (after dem gesägten leaf); compare hitt. karpina- `ein tree';

    mir. corrán `sickle', cirrim `schlage ab, verstümmle' (-rr- from -rp-) perhaps ir. corr, cymr. cor `cusp, peak' (: σκορπίος);

    ahd. herbist, ags. hærfest `Herbst' (`time of Pflückens, Erntens'; probably ein Superlativ *karpistos `am besten zum Pflücken geeignet'); aisl. harfr m. herfi n. `harrow';

    with s-: ags. sceorfan st. V. `bite, zerfressen', gesceorfan `tear, scrape'; scyrft `das Schneiden', ahd. scirbi, mhd. schirbe, later scherbe `shard (*scharfkantig incisive); head, testa' (see above to Old Indian karpara-), mnd. scherve `bowl'; ahd. scerf, mnd. scherf `halber Pfennig, kleinste Scheidemünze', nhd. Scherflein; ags. scearfian (*skarƀōn) `scrape, tear' = mnd. scharven (besides scherven from *skarƀjan) `in small Stücke carve, slit', ahd. scarbōn ds., mnd. scharf `shard', aisl. skarfr `schräges Endstück', norw. skarv `Klippe';

maybe alb. shkrep 'cliff, rock', shkrif 'soften'?

    with other Vokalfolge: ahd. screvōn `incidere', mnd. schreve m. `line (`*Ritzung'), line', schwed. skreva `Felskluft', aisl. skref n. `Schritt' (`*cleft, gap'); ags. scræf `cave', mhd.schraf, schrave `zerklüftete Felsklippe', mnd. schravel `spiky, schroff'; mhd. scrove, schroffe m. `spitzer (*schneidender) Stein, Klippe', rückgebildet nhd. Adj. schroff;

    as `rissige, rough skin' here die Postverbalia aisl. skurfa f. `scurf, scab', schwed. skorf, ags. skurf, scēorf m. `scurf, scab, Grind' (to scēorfan, see above), ahd. scorf ds. (besides norw. skorpa `crust', mhd. besides schorf also schorpf from geminiertem *skorp[p]-), compare lit. kárpa `Warze', lett. kãrpa, kārpis ds.;

    lit. kerpù, kir̃pti `with the Schere schneiden', Iterat. karpýti, atkarpaĩ, ãtkarpos `Schnitzel';krapštýti `scratch, stochern' (onomatopoeic word?); lett. cę̄̀rpu, cìrpt `shave, shear', cir̃pe f. `sickle'; Iterat. kā̀rpît `scratch, die Erde aufwerfen' (compare anord. harfr, herfi); apr. kerpetis `cranium' (compare Old Indian karpara-);

    with s-: lett. šḱērpêt `lawn schneiden', šḱērpis `Pflugmesser', šḱērpele `wooden splinter', šḱirpta `Scharte'; with zero grade i: lit. skir̃pstas `Rüster', apr. skerptus ds. (after den gesägten Blättern), lit. skir̃pstus `Rotbuche';

    aksl. èrěpъ `shard' (in den neueren slav. Sprachen partly also `cranium'); presumably also proto slav.. ъrpǫ, èer(p)ti in aksl. èrъpǫ, èrěti `schöpfen' (`with einer shard Wasser schöpfen'); russ. dial. èerp `sickle' probably contaminated from èerv and serp m. ds.;

    compare also kerǝp- `rag' above S. 581.

    E. (s)krē-m-, (s)krǝ-m-:

    cymr. cramen f. `scurf, scab' (with -mm-), bret. crammen, cremmen ds. (das -mm- expressive or from *-b-m-); mir. screm f. `Oberfläche, skin' (with -mm-);

    afränk. *scramasaks in `cultris validis quos vulgo scramasaxos vocant' (Gregor v. Tours), compare also scramis (besides scutis, spatis, lanceis, sagittis) in the Lex Visigothorum; mhd. schram f.` scratch, Schwertwunde', m. `Felsspalt, hole', schramen `aufreißen'; besides with mm : mnd. schram (-mm-) m. `Ritze, Kerbe', schramme f. `Ritze, scratch ' (out of it nhd. Schramme); ablaut. aisl. skrāma `wound, scratch; axe';

    lit. krãmas, lett. krama `Grind'; lit. krim̃sti `nagen, plague', lett. krìmst `nagen, klauben';

    ksl. pokromь `margo panni', russ. kromá `Brotschnitte, edge', ksl. ukromь Adv. `singulatim'(`*abgetrennt'), aksl. kromě Adv. `außen, outside '; ablaut. russ. dial. kremь f. `break, section of Waldes';

    presumably aksl. kremy, kremenь `Feuerstein'; lett. krems ds., ablaut. krams.

    F. (s)ker-s-:

    Hom. ἀκερσεκόμης `with ungeschorenen Haaren'; att. κουρά̄ `das Abscheren the Haare'; κουρίς, -ίδος f. `razor', κούριμος `geschoren', κουρεύς `barber' etc, κουρίξ `by den Haaren fassend', κορσόν κορμόν Hes., κορσόω `schere', κορσωτός `geschoren' etc;

    att. inschr. κουρον `lignum sectum'; αἱμακουρίαι `Blutopfer', κούρειον `a sacrificial animal ';

    mir. cymr. etc corr `verkümmert, dwarfish ' (*korso-);

    toch. A kärṣt-, В kärst- `abschneiden, destroy'; hitt. karš-, karšii̯a- `abschneiden, verstümmeln' etc

    II. i-basis skerī̆-, skrē̆i-, skrī̆- `cut, clip, divide' also speziell `durch Sieben Grobes and Feines divide'; see above gr. κείρω, καρῆναι, lit. skiriù.

    α) Gr. κρί̄νω (*κρῐν-ι̯ω, compare Fut. κρῐνῶ, and lesb. κρίννω) `scheide, unterscheide, entscheide', participle κριτός; κρίμνον ` coarse meal, flour' (`das Gesiebte'), κρῖμα, κρίμα n. `Entscheidung, judgement', κριτής m. `judge', κρίσις f. `Entscheidung', διακριδόν `abgesondert'; κρησέρα `feines Sieb'(derivative from *κρῆσις, *krē[i]-tis `crētiō, Sieben');

    lat. cernō, -ere `sichten, divide; distinct wahrnehmen (distinguish, discern), erkennen' (*crĭ-nō); certus (= κριτός) `geschieden, entschieden, certainly, gewiß', Perf. crē-vī- (whereupon previously crētum), ex-crē-mentum `Ausscheidung', screa (*skrēi̯ā) `Auswurf', screāre `sich räuspern'; discrīmen `trennender Abstand, Zwischenraum; Unterscheidung; entscheidender, kritischer Augenblick', crībrum `Sieb, Durchschlag' (*krē̆i-dhrom);

    air. criathar (*krē̆i-tro-) `Sieb', acymr. cruitr ds. (ncymr. crwydr `das Hin- and hergehen, Wandern'), corn. croider, mbret. croezr nbret. krouer `Sieb'; cymr. go-grynu `sieben' (*upo-kri-nō), bret. gourner `Sieb', cymr. gwa-gr, gogr ds.; gall.-rom. crinare `split', oberital. crena `cleft, fissure', etc; about ir. crīch `limit, boundary, Gebiet', cymr. crip, crib, corn. bret. krib `comb', see above S. 619;

    ags. hrīdder, hrīddel `Sieb', ahd. rītera, nhd. Reiter ` coarse Sieb' (*krē̆i- or *krī-dhrom); got. hrains (*kroini-), aisl. hreinn, as. hrēn(i), ahd. hreini `rein', nhd. rein, dial. `feingemahlen, gesiebt';

    bsl. *krei̯ō `slit, separate, scheide' in lett. krijât `flay', krija f. `Baumrinde', lit. krìjas m. `Siebreifen', Pl. krìjos `bast, bark', skrìjos `Siebreifen';

    proto slav.. *krojǫ, *krojiti (altes Kausat.) in ksl. krojiti `περιτέμνειν, -σχίζειν, dissecāre', russ. krojú, krojítь `cut, clip, carve, slit; corn, grain sieben';

    proto slav.. *krajь (bsl. *krōi̯a- m.) in aksl. krajь `edge, bank, border, shore', russ. kraj `edge, region; end', krájnij `äußerst'; with ablaut aksl. iskrь `nahe'; proto slav.. *krida in osorb. křida, nsorb. kśida f. `Sieb'.

    β) (d-present?) (s)kreid- in:

    mir. scrissid `cuts, slices' (*skrid-t-);

    got. dis-skreitan `tear trans.', dis-skritnan `tear intr.', nhd. schweiz. schrīssen, schreißen, bair. schritzen ` rend, schlitzen', schritz `crack'; as. hrītan or hrītian ` rend, ritzen, schreiben', aschwed. run. hrita `ritzen, einritzen'.

    γ) (s)krei-t-: ags. mid-hriðre n. `Zwerchfell'; afries. mid-hrith(ere) ds.

    δ) Labial extensions:

    (s)kerībh- in gr. σκαρῑφάομαι and σκαρῑφεύω `scratch, ritze auf, einen Umriß', σκάρῑφος m. `Griffel, Umriß, Skizze'; lat. scrībō, -ere `with einem Griffel graben, einzeichnen, schreiben', osk. scriftas Nom. Pl. `scriptae', umbr. screihtor `scripti'; lat. Lwe. are ahd. scrīban, as.skrīƀan, afries. skrīfa `schreiben' and die originally kirchlichen words ags. scrīfan `a punishment, esp. eine kirchliche penance, atonement auferlegen', aisl. skript `Beichte, punishment '; unclear is das p (= bb) in mir. scrīp(a)id `kratzt';

    with idg. -p-: aisl. hrīfa `scratch, scrape, scratch'; hrīfa f. `Rechen', afries. hrīvia, ndl. rijven `harken, rechen', ags. gehrīfnian `abreißen'; lett skrīpât `scratch, scrape, kritzeln; einschreiben', skrīpsts `krummes Schnitzmesser', skrīpa `eingeritzter stripe'.

    III. u-basis (s)keru-, (s)kreu-, compare perhaps lit. kir̃vis `axe', russ. èervь `sickle' etc; ags.scréawa m. `Spitzmaus', scierfe-mūs ds.:

    (s)kreut-: gr. κρουτεῖται `kernt from' Hes.;

    lat. scrūtillus `venter suillus condita farte expletus', dial. scrōtum `Hodensack', hyperurbanisiert scrautum ` quiver ' (scrūta `Gerümpel' from gr. γρύ̄τη `Gerümpel', as scrōfa from γρομφάς); scrūtor, -ārī `untersuchen, durchstöbern';

    mcymr. ysgrud `Skelett' (*skrou-to-), Loth RC. 43, 166 f.;

    ahd. scrōtan `hew, hit, cut, clip, schroten'; also `dress zuschneiden' (hence Schröder, Schröter), scrōt `cut' (mhd. schrolle `clod of earth' from *skruð-lá-??), ags. scrēadian `schälen, abschneiden', *scrēad(e) f. `Stück Zeug', skrūd n. `dress' = aisl. skrūð n. `kostbares Zeug, dress'; (without s-: aisl. hrjōða `leeren, vertreiben, verheeren', hrjōðr `Vernichter'); ahd. scrutōn, scrodōn, scrutilōn `erforschen, durchforschen', scrod `scrutatio', and got. and-hruskan `nachforschen' (*krū̆t-skō); here probably with Nas. and ausl. voiced-nonaspirated apr. scrundos f. Pl. `Schere'.

    (s)keru-p-, (s)kreu-p-:

    Lat. scrūpus `scharfer, spitzer Stein', scrūpulus `spitziges Steinchen' (scrīpulus nachscrīptus) and (as scrūpulum) `kleinster Teil eines Gewichtes or Maßes; ängstliche Genauigkeit (as `auf spitzen Steinen gehend'), Skrupel', scrūpeus `steinig';

    perhaps as `kratzend' = schwed. skroflig ` uneven, rough, hoarse' usw;

    poln. skorupa etc `shard'.

References: WP. I 422, II 573 ff., WH. I 170 f., 172 f., 198, 205 f., 274, 316 f., II 498 ff., Trautmann 117, 119, 128 ff., 141, 265 ff.;

See also: compare also kreup- above S. 623.

Page(s): 938-947


Root / lemma: (s)ker-5

German meaning: Schallwort

See also: see above S. 567 ff. (ker-).  

Page(s): 947


Root / lemma: (s)kert-s-

Meaning: across

German meaning: in Worten for `quer, quer durch'

Comments: ('in Querschnitt'; to [s]ker-t- `cut, clip')

Material: Arm. -xeṙ `aufsässig, widerspenstig' (würde also idg. -rs- voraussetzen);

    gr. ἐγ-κάρσιος, ἐπι-κάρσιος `slant, skew, in die Quere', κάρσιον πλάγιον Hes.;

    bsl. *(s)kersa- in арг. kirscha, kirschan (zero grade), kerscha, kērschan `about'; lit. sker̃sas Adj. `quer, zwerch', lett. šḱèrs, Adv., šḱḕrsu `quer', russ.-ksl. èrěsъ (and after other preposition auf zъ : èrězъ), russ. èerez `durch, about - out'; also aksl. èrěsla Nom. Pl. ` loins' as `Zwerchfell, Quere of Körpers'?

References: WP. II 590, Trautmann 129 f.

Page(s): 949-950


Root / lemma: skeub-, skeubh-, skeug-

Meaning: to move; throw, shoot

German meaning: `dahinschießen (flink); schießen, werfen, schieben'

Material: Got. af-skiuban `wegschieben, verstoßen', ags. scēofan and scūfan `schieben', ahd. scioban `schieben' (hat nhd. also die meaning `eilig gehen'), aisl. skūfa and skȳfa `schieben, fortstoßen', intensive with gemin. Tenuis mhd. nhd. schupfen, norw. skuppa ds., ahd. scupha, scopha `Schaukelbrett'; with gemin. voiced-nonaspirated: norw. skubba `rub, scour, rub, clean', mhd. schoppen `stopfen' and with long Spirans engl. scoff `Hohn'; ahd. scūf(a)la `Schaufel = shovel', scūbla ds., ags. scofl ds., mnd. schuppe, ndl. schop f. ds. (-pp-); mhd. schūft `Galopp';

    auf skeub- wird zurückgeführt aisl. skopa `run, spring', aisl. skaup and skop n. ` derision ', ags. scop `Dichter' (Nachbildung after lat. mimus), ahd. scof, scoph m. `Dichter', n. `Gedicht, derision ';

    lit. skùbti `hurry', skùbinti `beeilen', skubùs, skubrùs `flink, hasty'; aksl. skubǫ, skubati `pluck, rend ';

    skeug- in mengl. mnl. schokken `bump, poke', mnd. schocken `tremble', nd. schocken, sckucken `shake, swing', mhd. schocken `swing, tanzen';

    maybe from skeu-k- here as `gehetzt': germ. *skeuhwa- `shy' in ags. scēoh, engl. shy, mhd. schiech; out of it ags. scyhhan, ahd. sciuhen, nhd. scheuchen; with ablaut and gramm.variation germ. *skugwa- `shy' in mnd. schǖ(we), schwed. skugg; aksl. šèuti `hetzen' (*skou-);

References: WP. I 377, II 556, Trautmann 263, Wissmann Nom. postverb. 128, 177 f. and Skop BSB. 1954, 2.

Page(s): 955


Root / lemma: skeud-1

Meaning: to protest, grumble

German meaning: `unwillig, mürrisch sein', in Balt. also von körperlichem Schmerze

Material: Gr. σκυδμαίνω, σκύζομαι `rage against, grolle', σκυθρός (diss. from *σκυδ-θρός) `mürrisch, unwilling, sad', σκυθρωπός ds., σκυθράζω `bin unwilling ';

    lit. pra-skundù, -skudaũ, -skùsti `to schmerzen, to exhaust anfangen', skundà ` accusation ', praskundà `pain', núoskunda `Mitleid', skùndžiu, skų́sti `sich beklagen'; lett. skund-u, -êt `mißgünstig, neidisch sein, be angry with'; lit. skaudùs `schmerzhaft, sullen, violent', skaũsta (skaudė́ti) `es schmerzt', lett. skàužu, skàust `neidisch sein, injure, hurt', skaudêt ds.; lit. skaudulỹs `ulcer'.

References: WP. II 554;

See also: compare also keu̯ǝd- above S. 595 f.

Page(s): 955


Root / lemma: (s)keud-2

Meaning: to throw, shoot

German meaning: `werfen, schießen, hetzen'; intr. `dahinschießen, eilen, hervorschließen'

Material: Old Indian cṓdati, cōdáyati `treibt an, throngs', np. èust `flink, tätig, fitting', Old Indian skundatē ` hurries ' (Dhātup.);

    gr. κυδίας `Zahnkeim', Hes. (?); alb. heth `werfe, worfle' (for *hedh from *skoudei̯ō?);

This assumption seems uncertain; maybe from Root / lemma: sē(i)-2 : sǝi- : sī- : sē-: sǝ- and sei-: si-: (to throw, send, let fall, sow): derived alb. (*seth), hedh 'throw'.

    aisl. skjōta, ags. scēotan `toss, fling, bump, poke, schießen', ahd. sciozan `schießen, throw, schnellend bewegen'; ahd. scoz `Geschoß, sprout', scuz `Schuß, Wurf, quickness ', aisl.skjōtr, ags. scēot `quick, fast', got. skaut `lap, hem', aisl. skaut n. `Zipfel, point, edge, lap, protrusion', ahd. scōz `Zipfel, Kleiderschoß, Rockschoß', mnd. schott (-tt-) `(vorgeschobener) bar, bolt, Verschluß', whereof schutten `abdämmen, hinder, schützen', mhd. nhd. schützen;

    without anlaut. s-: mhd. hossen, hotzen `quick, fast run', nhd. dial. hutzen `antreiben, hetzen' (as Old Indian cṓdati), also `bump, poke';

    lit. skudrùs, skaudrùs `flink'; lett. skaudrs ds., skudra `Ameise'; aksl. is-kydati `herauswerfen', russ. kidátь `throw', kídkij `rash, hasty, willing, ready, gierig'.

References: WP. II 554 f.;

See also: s. also under skeu-5 and skeub-.

Page(s): 955-956


Root / lemma: (s)keu-1

Meaning: to perform, commit

German meaning: `herrichten, ausführen'

Material: Gr. σκεῦος n. (mostly Pl.) `appliance, armament, armor', σκευή `armament, armor, Kleidung, Tracht', σκευάζω `bereite, richte an; putze from; bewaffne; stifte an';

    aisl. heyja, ags. híegan ` commit ';

    aksl. prě-kutiti `adorn, embellish, adorn', russ. kutitь ` carouse, sich with Klatsch befassen, rage, clamor', ksl. kutiti `machinari', èech. kutiti, kutati `drive, push, schäkern', also (refl.) `wühlen, dig, schüren'; die slav. words based on auf einem *kou-tā perhaps `Angesicht'.

References: WP. II 546, Vasmer 1, 706 (,unclear').

Page(s): 950-951


Root / lemma: (s)keu-2, (s)keu̯ǝ : (s)kū-

Meaning: to cover, wrap

German meaning: `bedecken, umhüllen'

Material: Old Indian skunāti, skunṓti, skāuti `bedeckt'; doubtful ku-kūla- `Hülsen, armament, armor', pāṃsu-kūla- `Lumpenkleid the buddhist. Mönche';

    arm. c̣iw `Dach, cover' (*skēu̯o-); with anl. kh-: arm. xuc̣ `Stube' (*khū̆-sk̂ho-, at most zur s-extension), fraglicher xavar `dark' (*khou̯o-, forms arm. -ar), xu-p` `cover', xul, xlik `cottage', xlay (*khū̆lati-) ` female Kopfverhüllung, Schleier; dress';

    gr. σκύ̄νια Pl. ` brows ', ἐπισκύνιον `skin oberhalb the Augenbrauen' (compare Old Indian skunā́ti); σκύλος n. `Tierhaut, bowl', σκύλον `abgezogene Tierhaut', σκῦλον ds. `dem Feind abgenommene Rüstung'; doubtful κῶας, Pl. κώεα `Fließ';

    lat. obscūrus `*bedeckt' = `dark'; cūlus `the Hintere';

    air. cūl m. `back, rump', cymr. cil `back'; air. cūl (*kū-lā-) f. `Winkel, hideout ' = cymr. etc cil, ysgil ` hideout '; ir. cuarān, cymr. curan `Schuh'; perhaps kelt.-lat. cucullus `Kapuze' (compare above Old Indian ku-kūla-?);

    aisl. skjā f. `barn' (*skeu̯ā), probably also aisl. f. `skin' in hross-hā under likewise (*skou̯ā), skāli `cottage, room' (germ. *skawalan-); skȳ n. (*skeui̯o-) `cloud, Verdunklung', ags. scīo, as.scio `cloud'; ags. scu(w)a m. `shadow, darkness, protection', ahd. scuwo, scū m. `shadow', scū-c(h)ar n. `mirror', actually `Schattengefäß', aisl. skuggi m. `shadow, Spiegelbild, ghost', skugg-sjā f. `mirror', got. skuggwa m. `mirror'; ahd. skugin(a), mhd. schiune, nhd.Scheune (`Obdach'), norw. dial. skyggne m. `cottage, hiding place, nook, bolt-hole'; aisl. skaun f. (or skaunn m.) `shield'; norw. skūme `dark', aisl. skūmi m. `dawn, twilight', mnd. schummer `dawn, twilight' (: lett.skumt); aisl. hūm n. ` twilight ', PN. Hymir `Verdunkler'; perhaps ahd. scūm `scum, froth, foam' (if `deckendes');

maybe alb. (*scūm) shkumë 'foam'

 

    aisl. skjōl n. ` hideout, Zuflucht, protection, barn', skjōla `Bütte, Kübel', (`Verwahrungsraum'), changing through ablaut aisl. skȳli, mnd. schūle n. ` hideout ', afries. skule `cottage'; aisl. skȳla `beschützen', mhd. schūlen `verbogen sein, lurk, lugen';

    ahd. scūr m. `Wetterdach, protection' (: lat. obscūrus), mhd. schūr `Obdach, Schirm', aisl. skūr f. `skin the Mandel', ahd. skūra, sciura, (*skūrja) `barn, barn'; with formants -ko-and lengthened grade ō[u] probably got. skōhs, aisl. skōr, Pl. skūar, ahd. scuoh `Schuh' (actually `deckendes Oberleder of Schuhes', compare above ir. cūarān `Schuh' and mndl. schoe `sword scabbard, Futteral');

    lit. kẽvalas `Eierschale', lett. èàula `bowl, husk'; lett. kūja `vulva'; lett. skaût `umarmen', skumstu, skùmt `sad become' (`obscurāri'); but lit. skūrà `leather, Baumrinde', lett. skura `husk' from weißruss. skyra.

    A. Dental extensions (bzw. formations with Dentalformantien):

    (s)keu-t-:

    Gr. σκῦτος n. `skin, leather', ἐγκυτί, ἐγκυτίς `bis auf die skin', κύτος n. `Hülle, skin' and `vessel, Urne, cavity', κυτίς `small Kasten, Büchse', κυσός πυγή; γυναικεῖον αἰδοῖον Hes.; (*κυτ-ι̯ος or *κυθ-ι̯ός), κύτ(τ)αρος `cavity, Wölbung, Bienenzelle, Eichelnapf', κύσσαρος `ānus' (*κυτFαρος); about lat. cuturnium `vas, quo in sacrificiis vinum fundebatur' s. WH. I 320;

    lat. cutis `skin'; cunnus `pudendum muliebre' (*kut-nos);

    cymr. cwd `Hodensack'; mcymr. eskit, esgit, ncymr. esgid, corn. eskit, esgis `Schuh' (*ped-skūti-);

    aisl. hūð, ags. hȳd, ahd. hūt (*hūdi-) `Haut' (schweiz. hut `husk, Fruchtschale');

    ahd. hodo, afries. hotha `testicle'; ags. hoðma m. ` darkness ', ahd. hutta `cottage' (*kuti̯ā́ or *kudhi̯ā: out of it as. hutta, huttia);

    alit. kutỹs `Beutel, Geldkatze'; balt. *keutā `skin', apr. keuto, lit. kiáutas `bowl, husk', dial. kẽvetas m. ds.; kiãvalas m. `Eierschale' (*keu̯olo-), lett. èàula f. `bowl', èàumala f. `hard bowl' (Trautmann 132);

    nasalized *kunti̯ō `preserve' perhaps in aksl. sъkǫtati `beruhigen, stillen', russ. kútatь `verhüllen' etc, apr. -kūnti `pflegt', Inf. pokūnst, pakūnst `preserve, protect' and with intonation change slav. *kǫta f. in aksl. kǫšta `σκηνή', klr. kúèa `Schweinestall' (Trautmann 145).

    (s)keudh-:

    Old Indian kuhara- n. `cave', kuhaka- m. `Schelm, Gaukler, cheater ', kuhayate `betrügt', kuhū́- f. `Neumond' (`the versteckte moon'); pamir dial. skīð `hohe Mütze from Schaffell';

    gr. κεύθω `verberge', κεῦθος n., κευθμών `verborgene depth', κευθμός `verborgener place, cavity, Saulache';

    mir. codal `skin';

    ags. hȳdan `conceal'; here or to *skeut- got. skauda-(raip) Akk. Sg. `Schuh(riemen)', aisl. skauð f. `vagina', Pl. `Vorhaut; Elender, Scheusal', skjōða f. `Beutel, sack, bag', mnd. schōde n. `vagina' (beim horse), f. `Schote, Erbse', mhd. schōte `Schote, Samengehäuse';

    unclear is lat. cūdō, -ōnis `Helm from fell, fur' (Lw.?); in the meaning nahe steht av. xaōδa- m., ар. xaudā- `Hut, Карре; Helm'.

    В. guttural extension (s)keu-k̂-:

    Old Indian kṓśa- m. ` container, Schatzkammer etc' (late also kóṣa-, das perhaps ind. Entwicklung from kṓśa- is); doubtful kōśaka- m. n. `Ei, testicle, Gehäuse', kuśapa- m. (uncovered) `Trinkgeschirr', kuśayá- m. (uncovered) `Zisterne'; kukṣí- m. `belly, womb, cavity'; npers. kus `vulva'; av. kusra- `sich wölbend, hollow', vīkusra-, hankusra- `sich auseinander-, zusammenwölbend';

    lit. kūšỹs (Plur. kūšỹs), lett. kũsis, kũsa `vulvahaare' (*kūki- or *kūksi-); lit. kiáušė `skull, cranium', kiaũšis `Ei, testicle', preuß.-lett. ḱaušis `Ei'; lit. káušas `großer Schöpflöffel', lett. kaûss ` platter, Kochlöffel'.

    C. s-extension (s)keu-s-:

    Perhaps Old Indian koṣṭha- m. n. ` container, lower abdomen, Vorratskammer' under likewise, kuṣṭha- m. `Lendenhöhle' (?), kúṣṭhikā `Inhalt the Gedärme', npers. kušt `Weichen' (arm. Lw. kušt `belly, Weichen, body');

    gr. κύστις, -εως, -ιδος ` bladder, Beutel', κύσθος `vulva';

    doubtful lat. custōs `Wächter', compare WH. I 319;

    cymr. cwthr `After, Mastdarm' (*kuzdhro-);

    aisl. hauss m. `cranium'; ablaut. norw. dial. hūse m. `Fischkopf', ahd. hūso `Hausen', after dem with Schildplatten gepanzerten Kopf;

    nhd. dial. hosen `husk, Schote', ags. hosa m. `Strumpf, husk', aisl. ahd. hosa `trouser';

    presumably here got. aisl. ags. as. ahd. hūs `house', compare nd. hūske `Kerngehäuse, Futteral, Tüte' under likewise;

    got. huzd, aisl. hodd f. (?), ags. as. hord, ahd. hort `treasure, tribute, Hort' (*kuz-dho- = gr. κύσθος); schwed. hydda `cottage', dial. hodda, hudda `Schuppen, Gefängnisraum', aschw. hydda `conceal'.

References: WP. II 546 ff., WH. I 298 f., 301, 309, 319, 320, II 196, 503, Trautmann 132, 145.

Page(s): 951-953


Root / lemma: (s)keu-4

German meaning: `worauf achten'

See also: see above S. 587 f. ((s)keu-4).  

Page(s): 954


Root / lemma: (s)keup-, skeub(h)-

Meaning: bundle, flock, etc.