04/05/2003 : oDOvk wJ

 

(la dmocratie) oDvkp

(la thocratie)   oDv Clh

1380 Dv ,4 oDz ,EDOA DD qC

 

,lA DF OhDv C D

( ! ... oDF ph) ! PvC p C qDN

DJpk DlV TeF kD F Co D z C

D q ko ok) v p ok DJoC ok

!! lqClC DOzp kF kp

PvC pNpF Clh qC lzoh l VN

!l ok xb qC Co kh o Cpq

 

 

CkppF C lOC DV "vCpk" DV F koCk oDvkp

"kp" ܷ F  dmo cratie D DsC Z .PvC Fh 

?oDv Cl  kp Cl .lOw "oDv"

ioDN lF CoCk lOw DOVC D l DF D sC DN

.kz pk oDZk oDqo gpZ DF DA ܷ : lzDF

C GN CpF GvD DS lp ko "oDvkp" so ok "kp"

.lzDF llJ

,sC C DkCq l wϾ CoCn DJ D ,DOvDF D ok

,lpz p CpF ,NAok .lz lpz ,kCqA Ckp Dz DN "kp"

. PzCk kV  ,Po kpF ,(oCrPlh)"kCqA p" PwF kld

EDwd "kA hCk" CoCnOlh Dq  ,qpC Dkh MoDGF ܷ

! llz

(D Dq) lF 4 ok DOVC DsC lDhpZ F w Dd

"?! vCpk l C" :l (ϵ Dlk) PvC kp MkD

"DJ" D so CpC ok  :kp p ok Co DD D Dso C

DsC qC .kF ( kDܡJ  hirarchie CpF Co sC C D)

PvC lz  ,wCpDFq xKv ,N DFq koC qCpC qC PvDp

e DpDp A C (ko) PvC (le satrape) "ICpNDv"

w joDN .PvC "op lGOw" A k   (CdD)

p pv pF kF lz iF Pk 127 F DvoDJ o߬CpKC"  :l

".lkF DzkDJ ,Pvk ok oDk ߥh F ,kh oDk ok DC .kF JCpNDv

  .lOzCk oCp DDz Dz qC pN DJ J pF Pvokܷ

 

,OhAp ok DZ ,XCo lõ hpF ,p ok

C DCpd (... D C PA ,D DkoD lpF) k DJ pNDF

(.lkpoDpFCo C "yCpv"Moߤok ) llrpF Co ߵp lkF

! Dkh qpC DpGh xW S rZ

 

Dh ܷ ,DDw CߡJ ,le DDV H lCl Pw

"k pGo" "Dz" DC ܷ ? kF "CpC" vDG C

.lOzCk DF Co

 

fv F qpv b D Dlv phCC DN Ck DV DN

(! DGOzC pC ).lvp DOvDF D oDv kp

kp qC CoDJ ,DJ o qC ,CoJ CqoD ,kp pOF C

.l pk oDZk vC ok ,llz kpz

 

: PvC koA (40 o ,v lV ,lCo) "HnCUp" ok k߷w

.ϷO D : lp k kp kp ,kp DC () pGػJ ... "

C lD r () ϵ qC .koCl DOC DA F Clh lDDp DA rV

Ck o F ,qDF p CpJ lDDp : P D oDF ok lCkp

".lCkpG DJ e o F l zo

 

Ovk 4 Co kp (22 o ,v lV ,lCo) e F Щ PvC Z

: l

 

; lOw lF D A CoCk OwDz o qC DDzkDJ C"

; lO DDzkDJ DOvA Ep ,kph y vC F Cpq k

; lkoA Pvk F MpR DorF v

; lOvJ DOvk A F Co kh D Щ vCF kp oDZ

lOw CkD dC DJoDZ ,ll EA Dok lD ,kp kN F

".loCl l Coh ECh rV

 

DDzoDOhC ok DN Mol kF C wCp orF EC k qC

PvCh Dk Dp DA   (l'absolutisme royale) kF

xW C ok .llChCp Co (tats gnraux) صxW

(lkF "v Ovk" DDdo ,CpzC ) (ordres)"Ovk" 3 DlD

qC J lZ DN   .lOzCk oߩd (noblesse, clerg, tiers tat)

CpzC pOF kF Dܷ  : PzCk Co Ovk p EC

qC J Pvok yo C .(Co 3 qC Co 2) .llF Co rZ F DDdo

.Po Cv pq "v Ovk" DlD p qC EC

ܷ ,(bourg)pz DkCqA lppF ok "v Ovk" C qDN

.lzkCqA qDN (serfs) DOo lz (bourgeoisie) qCsoF

MCqDOC ϵ pF Op DJ qDN qCsoF yoz EC k

  Mol qC v   C ,kDOC p Mol DGlF : kF CpzC PDdo

Od) CpF Co d  ! CpF ,khCpF Mol ,PvChvDv

Db (lkp Hw Co kCk Co d 1947 Dv ok DN wCpDq Z ,Ckp

.(! DGOzC pC qDF).kG FC DOvCh qC

DNk .l ߬ (1792-1804)Dv 12 qC F ,DD oV qDN

(PvC WJoVok wCp ,1958 Dv qC) .kCk DDJ C oV F JD

(lkF Mol k Ovk DDdo) ,EC Ddo l GV ٺpϵ

.lz wCp D koC 1905 Dv ok þ "PDd DDw"ClV

.l kp lCN "kp" pCk qCkA b kp UoDh FpF F

(.koCk UCo kpF q ,DOo S ,Doߡ qC CoDJ ok PvC Dd ok C )

"khp-kh" oDF ok qpC CpC ok cp M F PGw p DDJ C

(.l D pFCpF kCqA ,oV DsC F lCN).lzDF

 

DصC Co kh PDd Z kp C : qCkpK "oDv" F Dd

.kp oCp vopF ko lDF l

ܷ .lvDz Pvo F Co lD kD b ,F ,Cl

.lOw (h DN) "kp " (oDv) PDd DCh

.l Dk C qC ,kh rGv EDO ok ,Cn pv

! kp oCp D ko rܬiFok lDF C DDlk

PDd pF kp oCnpRDN DoDqDv DC Z p PvC Pvok

.PvC pNoDv kp vDv so ,lzDF pN vC lF ,pNOw

pd kp ,DOVC-vDv Mol pCk ok , lzDF C PvC ZA

lZ qC p Ow Mol DصC CpF DoDqDv so .lrF Co (phA) DDJ

ok lCOF D pk MoDG F .lzDFkp FJ DA (oCpN) D

  (lOvCh pC DOdC) lz pz (A PD Od) so N

.lzDFOzCk Co (so ok pk) O "kp Ϻ" d A qC xJ

 

Ppz ,lDD Co D kF kp aA ,Pw oDz pd

,kq D pk ,kpD Dso .PvC ص ok DA p kF "EDiC Х"

.lzDF A qC kp lCo pF (Mol pCk) oCl C OwF F oGW

.PvC (! ˡ DoV xo D) DDzkDJ Doߡ qC CoDJ ok A DS

so q so ) PvC pNkA qpC CpC ok PvDv EA Z pC

o vDvC DJ Mol oCl lz OwF (Pw ED oNDOk

-pGo -DpGh xW" pCk PD Owz Co .PvC D Pp CpeF

q Co rAPDw C F "D p -D -DG Coz

оDe lzo CpF GvD Dh OwF oCl C kV .PvCkp ClJ xb

lDp C F VDOdC b PvC ClF C .PvC Mol i

! koCk Co C oDpF DC PvC Ͽe .Pw lzDF pGo iz d

 

ko ok .kpF J ǡ o F DN PD Co ϤC p lDF ,i ko p ok

lOw Ddo DN DpGh xW DlzEDiOC ,vC oV

kh p qC rWF vDvC D G DpGh xW D~A pN"

"lDV qC" CpFDF .(80/2/8 ,3 e ,qo Dqo) "Pw pnJDC DpGh

.PvClz lzD DGpN ,vo C EZoDZ ok , DDdo

 

F pNDpq oDwF C F Oܤ OpJ Doߡ ok Mol oCl

D Mol P kz DpA ok .PvC lAok OwF F PDd

ok Uph CpF A ok lZ Dz pC) .lClz DGpN vDv

xW lD ECh Od PvC pOF ,lzDF OzCl NDFDiOC qoDG

lF C F pOhDF DJoC ok oDvkp Dd .( ! l Co lz (p)

! Pw Eh ClZ ,Pw

 

vDv oDOhDvok  D Mol PDhk Fp OpJ CV vDvC ǡ

,DDOC pNlNpR S DWA F DN .PvC (DJoC Z Cî D  oߡ)

N ,rN DD lZ "HdD"   (sylvio Berlusconi) vC F

Erd DJ pF F إN  "qo " ,PvC D Dܤ ".Q.A " DGN߾

! kz pq Pwi   l kDJ Co إN C .kp llV

.PvDDOC DOvCo Pvk pGo Dvo C C

 

.PvC lzOz 2000 Dv ok ,lA DF ok aA
l C e ,"OJ" qC pFo oNDoD
"vpF" qpJ qC xJ ,2001 D 15
! l DF Co DDOC MDFDiOC ok

 

DGdD ,lz DWFDV Doߡ C ok vDv CpGo , o߬ F

DpC DF lCkDOwC e kh DDVCppvpF (! koA Mol ) J

.loCk vDvC PDd PvDvpN N ok (DJ ClJ)

C ok Z A ,PvC oDvkp vDv D so Z pC : A qC pNlF

  ! PvC Pܮv koCk UCo  ,DA pO pq Dp ܷ ,DkCDh

ܷ ,"vCk" qDvDJC Ppz ϤC HdD xo ,DS CpF

,vCk voD ,Ppz C oCnDF pwJ rVw ,serge Dassault

?? PvC koA Pvk F kh OwDz pRC ok Co D C C DA  .Pw

qClC D ,lD " CpzC" kz Co DC .PvC kDq DDS C qC

! lOzCkpGh DOo qoDd qC DzkClVC loCk pGh "CpF d" DC qC

raF DOGw kp lkp TDF DqDvoD DoDOhDv vopF ,oDF

PvC tJ HDV oDwF Dw qC  lk Co C oCpOvC F "CkCqA"

.PvC UoDh iF C Ϥd qC   

kpkle CpF ,DOVC ߥh F ,D p OzCn PvC zo

.l pNok oDv kp qC Co so ,Dlz EDiOC Dl EDiOC

  ,vC F DkA Z ,(Clh ܷ  tho ) ,oDv k ,oDv Clh DC

ܷ F oDvClh xJ ,lCo Dp Clh "lD" D

.PvC kp pF Clh  (DDdo) Owp D (CpGDJ) "Ow" PDd

ФC pFCpF ok CoDv kp PD FD ok ,CC ok PvC kD Eh

PvC kp FpWN Co DDzkDJ PDd oߡ P h ,þ P

? l DeOC Co C kߡ Z . Co þ P PDd

(MD  S ) CpC F DN D DF ,DNkh ,phA vpJ F jvDJ ko ok

! l ClJ Co jvDJ

Z CpC kp qpC ܷ .kp i Co qA C qC Po pF Co C OGC)

( "! kp Ϻ .PvC xF qA" : lF lCN

! lA EDweF GpCߵ lDF ,lzDG C CkD qC D pC ,C PGe C iF

! Pzn kz ߿ qC ,onF pC qC

: lk D joDN ok vopF

oDvClh DF ,! vC DF D vC F ,ol J Dso DN DGpN

C oDOv Z ,DOvDF D DV PvDV C ok .lCkF Cp

.lhok pF lN oDN pF DSOvC

 

:  (415 e),(1)lw PCok ,joDN Dvok ok

 

... llz joDN ok Dpz pOh vCpk NpJ ok o NA

,kz Cp D CpF PFpN ϷN qC Dw oCkohpF Pp pC

,A pD DoDz Co ok Cpq ; kFlCh dF C vCpk

,lzDF pFCpF DF lCN DwC kCpC Z p PvC C ϤC Pd

Pw aA qC lq DOp PFpN ϷN F Co DA FDOvk CN

Pw C d DC ,Pw Mol H DwC d .kp pFCpF olCOd pOF

yopJ DW C OwDz kClOvC F Co p qC DA F lvo CpF

F Pw PG D lClh HDV qC C쮵 d .koCkpF D ,lk DqA

"... PvC V cԤ ph F kz kCk kp F pC PvC qDOC

 

S .kz lk pOF Pew qC J o ok lCkCqA DpV

: (376 e ,(1) lCo qC ) P o oNCpKC ,upGN

 

"PvC Dzkh l pF lkDzk GN ,lp oCp Dzk ko DClh pC"

 

koC pOF ok .lA oDz F DSOvC lDF koC C

.lkF q o DClh lD kh "DDd" ԤC ,DqDFpk ok

.(! ll Co pvC Pdq  ,DC DD ,Dߵp S )

,lkF Ow Pܮv PiN pF Ow kh DD D Od

(.... ,D Ck ,DJoC Dv p ok D IDJ ,vC Dh lD )

(... DvDv DF lF) ! lCkG ok UDNPiN qC kDq

.lz (!) CDJ Dpk HV "orF" MDOhC DN

(1491-1547) 8 pD ,xCDzkDJ Ԭ DF IDJ Z ,DS CpF

"xC Dw"   !! kp EDC "o Dw"qC C ,kp ľCN

"! lzDF pNPvk k" A "IDJ" DN kp DJpF  Co (glise anglicane)

.kCl Co (Clh)k pFCpF ok  kDOwC qDVC kh F DzkDJ C l Pk

,DoDF DoDF oD (!PhlC Co llV k) kq Co kh (hDz) DF

(!? lCh DS) .PvC lz oCpN joDN ok C qC J

 

DzkDJ kp Dvo ,k 1701 Dv Ck D ,A qC xJ

D C .l UCkqC NDƦiz DF D ,lzDF ND xC ( D)

(D Dd) "þ " ( D)DzkDJ ب ok .PvC pGO qpC F DN

p C DC qC l kD lv Dvo lDF lzDF xC Dw

(2000 pGC C ,l C e) .kp lCh Dk (xC Dw)

 

oDvClh PDd oDF ok "olk" D qC ziF DV C PvC HDV

Z ,oDF Co lkF Clh "Ow pGDJ" DA C DDV v

: lzDG CpC ,? Ckp lDz ,qpC F PDGzF NDV qC lDz

OzCk oDOvCh .lloz C pF k ,lvo Dv F PF Z 

Clh DF Dv ,OvCh C qC lz oCk pGh DF .llz ,CC pk Z ,Dz

.l ko Co N DA .lz Co kp Cl : P C F Clh .kp Moߡ

(!! Pw D qC lDN) .l ko Co kh

pk x Dz DA !! Ow"lFoCl oD pD Clh" pDZ D OGC

,ϵ kV qC CDb kCk lF ,lvDz Co

? lzDF lz lz D Op D ,C D DF F DN ,joDN ok

C .lOC Dh pF "Dkh" qC kp oDF D lz sC)

qC ,lCol ,"pC HVC"  ,b "lz" ,lO Co DA

! kF kCk D kh qC kV  pC C ( !lC kF pN PwJ vp

î wϾ Dlk qC ,D  ,Ozn (lvDz qp )hz qC

,PDhk C  .zDG m PDhk p Di Cllz CN

.PvC kp PDd DصC D  ,kp kh F zqC Ow

PDhk C ФC  "? Z lA ok ,OzD Co pC " : SCEp Cl F

(EDNpJ ) lN Ddok ˡ CF lD CoC߾ F

.PvC DV kJoDN ok GDV Mǡ

"PDd DDw" D ClV D ,phDF kF Mǡ C FpWN DF

oDzC DV C ok PvC Eh .(1905) lz HߥN wCpok 

.lOw pNxJ wCp qC PV C qC Fp OpJ Doߡ qC oDwF

w N D  .kohF w WC o lDF DpC oV xo S

: PvC lz Oz A o ? kz Z ok uDvC DF Z

"uCrN ED" lzoV xo qC PGe qDN . (in god we trust)

! Co O Mp DDN O qC xJ l DC Co O d C

. (? kqClC Cpk kD Co DzoDOo C)

lF koCk d w DA ,kz Z oN vpJ jvDJ "N"

(2) ? D lzDF

ok Od oDOhDv F Fp Mǡ wF o Pwǡ xJ

.lk þ P ФC ܷ ,PvDv ok Clh PDhk C ok Co qpC CpC 

,CpvC DkC D  .PvC pNoCklh þ yC "Ϯ"

: kqClC lh F Co D ,"kF lCh A PiODJ lFC DN zoC" l

qC pd P A ! D kF lChpq Pwi Ckp lCk ypq Pwi

CpvC CpC DODd MDFDN vopF F Op ok lDz .lq PlFC

.(... ,k DOwzD ,PvDv ok Clh PDhk).qCkpJ F

! koCl oDkCke F p

p qC G ,llz þ P ФC lCon F ľ CoD h C

D CpF  .kF 1357 Dv okD  DOVC lD Hõ D ,rZ

C ok .PvC DGϬ Pܮv p lCo Cl qC CpF k

.Pw pd ,lzDF OzCk Co d pk kp p S , "J "

.F oDv Clh oDwkp qC "DOC" Co CpC qpC so D

b joDN   .kz pNkClGOvC lCN DN ,Dq op F ߥh F ,k

.kpF oD PDdqC kh F PvC llCo lGOw

yN lC .kz llN CpC ok Dî lDF ,C o kDN C qC zD CpeF

.lzDF rAPDw ,DC Od ,ǡ C d Co lzDF C lDF D

Co vpJ PGe Od pDd Dd ok ,so PD ko ok إN CpF

.ko ol F ,q DDwC D W pOCp C ,Dq kp kz

,D Ddo qC lZ Od O C ,(2000 pGDvk 21 N)

lCOvDh pF so CoDvClh DGV pNDCpwJC DF DZ F CoDGVC

: (k C ,qpCCok Dqo) P rpGN v wd lv .PvCp

oCrFC Odk PvC A ok kPd Odk F p"

".l Ppd ... vC ... DOvCo ok kPd DC ,v CpF PvC

C Z .PvC wv qC Dhok D C wϾ Dlk qC

lCOF "lOvC" pC DC .lzDF " ϵ VCh Z ,VCh ϵ Z"

! k kDOvC A qC lDF ,kpGF J F Co oDvClh so ϵ pF qoDG

"kPd Odk" DsC ϵ p qC lDN oCpN qDF

,(2000 pGDvk 21 N) . k kDOvCoDvClh qC lDF lOw k

  WO kz ClJ CpC ok D DwC Cl

qC F qo p ,J qC qpC CpC ok Co þ P ФC ko ok vpJ

.kCk V F oq F kz  Co kp ? lr D ,J

Dlk Co W pNpF ,oDv kp C DJ ߤC qC Noߤ ok

PVpN DC ,CpeF D ok ߥh F ,lzEDiOC DlD F

.lzDF ,("Clpz" ) oߡ CpF ,W C CpF

! PvC ioDN C "lpz" sC C kh llk lDz

! kok Dz pv (DOdC) ,lA pv F D DW

.Po DV oDN Gz o J qo lZ e C ,lzDF lk lDz aDZ

C oN MCp PDGz ,ol CpF vCp ok pVDA Div qC qpC

(79/5/9)  .kp HWN kh C pOF DF

(lFD D Dzkp ok Co A D) DwC F Dz ,A lCh CpF

! kqoC A kp oDF Pdq F .loCk UDOdC


C lV ,1354 v IDZ , lCo Np DN ,CpC DOVC joDN (1)

 

(2)

l oDF Od ,wCp oߡok lq Dv PwF qC F ߬ ok

qC "pz" lF DZ .zDF OzCk kh "G" DF F UDOdC

P C ok Noߤ ok  ! VqDF ok DOvk F oCl A oDC

C pF oDDJ DF  COp pOF CpC pw F oDF ,phC Dv

,CkF oCk kD DN Ow (?Zpk Ck) uDܡClh ,pD ,le

Co C wpv  ,( ! Cl Co C CDN ,lNp l pǾ CkDG)

DV pv Co pk Cl kF CpC ok pC lrF uld .ClD kh DVpv

! lD kh

,H lF qC DOVC d b ܷ  PvDv k ClV

kCpC C DA .kߡ OzCn DJpq CkF oD   ,DF S Dw

î k Z  ? loCk kp EDiOC  lz EDiOC d qpC CpC ok

Dv oC llF Co rpGN DlD F rpGN Dw l d

? llF Co  CpC DoC lD F rpGN

,A ok kz DWC oCkpz ok PvC vCp UCkqC , wCp ok

loCk Pvk Dz Dd .koCl Co Gn D b ,oV DDV Cܵ F

.koCk OvJ Dz lC F C (lpԤC D) lpF MDFCph D Dw ,Dw F

C lF Z ,MDFCoh F PvC pOF ! lFD DW ok Co lCl )

(! Pw Dzk l Co D "lzph" A p .lA lzoh qC A

.koCk DV ,pz Coz DDJ ,oCkpz ok PvC ol D CpF aA

 

PpF qC OGC ,kq Dr oCp F C z ,lz ok HϮ qC

.kCpC NN pqo lq pF oDvClh so i pRC ܷ ! kF oDvClh