04/05/2003 : oDOvk wJ

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( Spinoza, Ethique 31) CqKvC
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Diderot olk
 
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"ЬDFd" DF "hC" lJ

"hC" Cqokph DzqDF

hC DDJ ok p۽os OwDF

la morale                                      ()hC

le Bien                        Clh ,"d" ,"p" ,ph

le Mal                        Dz ,"ЬDF" ,"p" ,pz

bon                                                                      ,Eh

mauvais                                                                         lF

thique      (lF qDvClV) oDOo Wv ,"shyast" "PwDz"

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(zodiaque lzoh)
 
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xoDJ ok Carnavalet q
"llC kD" EDO qC koA
 
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qC on ,(concepts) DlC ODz kpqDF CpF ohok DsC kG

.lzDF oߡ lDxJ DD pOF qC ,DDN

 

Co kh Ph lDF Pwi lD Co DF qokph ,(state) DOvC Z ok

ok DPh CpZ .koA PvlF Co oCk koA DF CN xKv DN kqDwF

.lzDF oCOvCD Pwv (yoߡ DFq ok "Co" DsC) C upOvk

 

lAok CpC ok ˡlC qpC lo DF ) wCp DsC C qC

,voDJ F A DFqD CkppF ,"NC" (lkp lCh r pOwCp

.lzDF

 

Z) CDJ l DsC qC CoDJ qDF qC xJ ,oDOz C ok

zo DN qCkpJ "NC" sC ODz F ("lF" D "ЬDFd"

.PvClV (morale) "hC" sC qC pw A (pFoDF) pOw CpZ kz

 

ivDJ France Culture kCo qC "qk" kDOvC ,1980 Dv ,uok iJ

pl qC Co sC k C Z A oDF ok , Dv lZ vpJ C F DDV

.kCk ,kqDv ClV

 

rG ,MCpv Z Cqokph yp Cq F ,kDOvCorF C DO

CsC OD ok Co D ,kqCkpJ (a C qC xJ ) CqKvC tF ,MoDk

.lDvo oD (lzDF "shyast" "PwDz" D kDܡJ) voDJ ok w

,(laic State) "kD DOvC" ok lk D D F pNDF A qC

(criteria) DWv Z,"k hC DoOvk "lz p

.lkp "hC"DV lDF

 

"ЬDFd" DF "hC" lJ

(DJ F DF qC) oOvk oDOhDv ,hC ,(DCpPv) ۢJ PzCkpF ok

C ok .lCOzCk Co A kDJpF CN (CpGDJ) "CpOF D qC" DN lzDF

,Dkp lq DDN F jvDJ OD CN lC CpO DN EZoDZ

CoCk Co ,PvClD DVpF DJ qC ZA (pwN) PzCkpF Co qC pOF

  ,"(Mal) ЬDF (Bien) d" , DOV DO Z ok .lzDF

"kqj" DOwC "pzph" ,"p p" ,"ߥ (evil) Dz"

.lz Op oD F  ,lzDF

 

C .koCk kr DlJ pZ Dk DF Dlk Z PvC zo

"NAEA" Z Co DPV C CpZ ,lzDF (lCϮ) "CpED" Dlk

D lKv" koA D F).koDC , CpF Co oDqDvD C ,oDqDvD

Z pC ,J lZ V qD ok krcDG v qC "PvD o Dv

(.kF "ED oVD" C qDF CpF zN ,kF DzD xF DS

 

pz oxJ ("koCl kV pz") MCpv O pFCpF ok Dlk C Z pC

(Dkr Z) ko lZ rV F ,(Ool) Dq DN ,lA EDwd F

.kF "CpO" rDOvk pOF DV ok CpZ--ZF pZ ok

 

"hC" Cqokph DzqDF

Cqokph DzqDF J ok ,PDDC ,DA pzo w orF

: kz kpz "hC" CoCr DN ,PD Dlk qC .lA pF "hC"

 

.lzDF OzCk Co (zDV) lz p()Cp CN (1

.kp oCrFC oCkpFpF A qC CO (2

.koCnF oCr AlDWF Co kh lCOF ,Dk DV p ok ,kp p (3

: z pOzo ,Yvon Quiniou ,D w qC DS NpJ ok

 

: Cpq ,koCl Co DF (condition) OwFqDF 3 qC b oCkDpv pF

 

(! lkp oCkDpv lCN kp DN) lzDF pCp lCN (1

.l oCrFC kDOvC pFkr qC (2

,oCkDpv oDqDv F PGw DA qC xJ ,(pFkr) Odq b (3

oCkDpv DdC ܷ .ko oCkDpv pF oDF pq F kh F

.lz DF  DA DOdq Dk qC lCN

 

PvC G ,lOw i kpW (DOVC oDOo ) DOVC DzqoC

Dd ok .lz pk oDZk DV PpJ Dq Pzn DF

.loCk kF pCp DkC Ovk , lOw CrOC hC DzqoC

.loCk (ߥh)iz GV pOF qpC MDhC , DV ok

 

,kh oCkJ oDF F lDF D "hC P쩾" D ZA F PGw oCk ok

DDz vopF ko Co A kohpF DDA ,DNkD DOv "koDOvk"

: p p ok DS CpF .k oCp

".Pw Ovk A ok Co PG PvC MkD k Dd pz"

: oDKv pDh F Co l SCEp C D

".lk D MCkD DoD F oDqo Pzn Dܷ rV Pw rZ P쩾"

(192 e)

pN F kp lwF ,lzDF kph DJ pFpN kCk ,DVC ok D yN

.PvC "kDOCDV" ,kqkClGOvC kDOCxJ CDV ok t F ,DV ok

 

hC DDJ ok p۽os OwDF

 

b ok .PvC pOv v oDwF oD hC DDJ tJ

C DF ooko DOVC PpJ .kq ok Co A D ,Pznok A qC CN DV

.lz lCh pFo DN C DF kq D pk CDV p kp lCh rpD Co w

 

(pO) qC pJ lF V ok lq PvC zo ,pk v qC

) lqDv DJpF Co (DOVC) lJ C (oDW) EZoDZ DlD

PvDV C ok .lzDF ǡ (lzDF DV A PpSC ypnJ ko

MDhC (DF OvJ ok ) DJ pF .lA D F (D) "NC" sC DJ

DOVC ok oDOo CpF ClkphDDJ DJpF A pOw , kp D

oN  Co A DorFqC CoDJ .lzDF (V lq EZoDZ)

.lD ("lF Eh") pvD qC pv kpClV CpF (rationnelle) Cqokph

PvC pN ,kqCkpJ ("ЬDFd" F ) "lF" F "NC" DVA qC

.pF oD F A CpF hC qC OvoC CsC

: Pv v k qC (shyast lCh F) "PwDz" sC

 

oD F ,PvC kF llwJ Co ZA CpF ,ONoq k ok ,J DFq ok (1

" NC" D sC "DCk F Pvk" DJoC ok D) PvC Oo

(llz

 

DJ lkD ,koCk "PwDF" GV pOF "hC" pFCpF ok (2

.lzDF lq qC lApF DCpZ F A DivDJ (Clkph)"OwDz"

.lwJ Co "hC wϾ" poDF D PvC Z

: lkp D Co MCpv DF O CqKvC Z Dw orF

"! koCl kV r ph ,pz DN "

 

ph vCp " a EDO Cܵ .lOp D DoDC C kF OhDv DA

.kqCkpJ wCp C F ("Au del du Bien et du Mal") "pz

 

 

Dq op F lOw V kp MDhC ,kDq ld DN vDvC

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: lCkF DA ,DOvDF D l tF ,DV Dw pNpJ

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(237-238 e)".PvC DOVC DvA DN CpF

DF oDqDv kh kp Dlk qC Co kp lDz P CN CpFDF

ok oD A ܷ ,koCl "Co" Co oD A DV Dd ok ,lClF "MDhC"

F DN oCk oD Z ,ko Cok .lW DOVC A Cp EZoDZ

? PwDF "d"

 

DN Co DV kCpC D DDJ DDJ MDhC ߤC Cp kDv

OwF pF Pho J ok loClJ C pF lV "lA DF qC" DdC ok

.Po lCh F qC DOVC Aok MDhC ,DOVC qC k DoDF

(طN) ypOw DOVC DN F Co kh CkD DA ,"DwC" C F

! lz lCi lF v o v pk D A ok l lk

Pvok ! lp ,(Pvk) p F Cp qC Dp "CpA ٲ" DF Co "ٲ" DA

.loA DJ (orthodoxie) lCp DN Co (DJ) kCqA lC D

 

: (215 e) ,lCo Oz F DF

ߤC lkF CpCĿO O C ok v p ,vC Pew ,Pk"

Clh qC upN DF þ Co pF kCpC PpSC PvC kkp ص Gnp hC

".PhDv oCkC kp eN oDOo F CN

 

Z) DCpoClJ wϾ EZoDZ ok Dk C DN ,wϾ Dlk qC

: PvC Z DA DDJ pd ,lp DV (߬ԾC

".lzDF D loCk ϷN DlC DlF ߤC DF lDF hC oDOo"

 

,uvp xKv oJC ,uOpk Z DCpkD ,HO C pFCpF ok

,DC CpF .lpF Cd C lDF r Co DwC lCkF A pF qDFpk qC

DoClJ qC p pz kpDN Dܷ F (Pd) qokph

.lzDF ,lCkF DDwC OiFlF C lCq ,GDwJ

 

! l VN ,pF PD pF PGw ,k yp DFlF GV F

: loCk DA xǵ pF zp Pvok CpkD DCpD Dd ok

kh ,(C Vok ok) rZ p qC J ,oDOo DoDWD DlF pOF"

kp Z) ioDN Ozn ,.... DDAD ,DOvD ,DOpe ,DWo koDOvk

Ϸ F Pvk Pϵ qC Pw Cqokph .lzDF (DOVC Z

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DF lCkpF J J Dlv qC Dk ClءlCorF ,(lOC p

!l (FjF qC) DJ D qC ,lzDFlz DF oDC oClJ DDJ pF DN

DJ pF ,Ww ,DGq lwJk ,D oDOhDv DJpF J ok DA

.lkDOC qo DCk DkoDOvk wJC qokph

CpF .lvo Cp r CpC ok oDF C ok tJ oD D DD

.lpF "qpC CpC" DDJ ok yqoCDF oDOz F

 

ok DkC vDvC oDN ,DOVC FCo CpF oCnD ,ߨ C OGC

DA ǡ .PvCkF ,oCkC A DDA ld ok ,DA lzoCllJ D

CpF oDG" Diw "ЬDF d" DdC DF Co kp gpZ ykp PvC C

!Pw oDqDv pv "lzlaJ

 

DvpJ PG DoDqDv F PGw pF CokC Ck PpJ

Z ,llk Co DA "ECh" J w k Od l cp Co

C ! lCOwF J Dlv Co kh lF oDF "OwF lW" DkC F lvo

.lzDF DkC ,kV p ,PD PvC "wNDk" D kF "OwF"

 

(Acide DsoxyriboNuclique ADN) .k.A lq kV ldC ,S

D"oDOvk" DC Dd .lz 1953 Dv ok

qClC Z DN oDOvk C ,kz Cp J qC F DwC Ds ok

DkC IDJ DZ  ,DA ? PwZ "V DwC" qC D pN ?? "lzDF Co"

Z ? koCk kV okD z ok 鿮 lzOwF D qC "DwC" ,l

) Pw DV oDOo ("DCo CpZ") lzo DvpJ C F jvDJ

p DF , PvDF vpJ F PGS jvDJ kCk DF , IDJ DS CpF .(! kF lCh

.krhpF ClV F V v

konF DoDJ qC lDF ,V v (?oCkoDF qC xJ O lZ DN ) kF Co D

ok (! Cpk qC F lDz CpJ CpF ) Cpk Z ,IDJ yp .(kon D)

Dqp D C oDF ok pʸ ! Pw Vp   ,PvC Cp ko C

(kDOC) ˡlC CO CpZ ,kko ok Co "vDv PvCo LZ"

F kp DlD PzCk oDOC CN OpJ CDV ok ,OGC .PvC

.lF Ct VN D DOzo ClءCk MlOvC k

Paul RICUR, Jean-Pierre CHANGEUX 
LA NATURE ET LA RGLE,
CE QUI NOUS FAIT PENSER
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("kqClC pǾ F Co D aA ,lD PG")
F J lZ PvC oClD w
.PzCk Pw CpVD DF lA  CpC
.uDzPwq-H ,lءCk kDOvC pk
Cl kpFJ kz DA pZ qC DA
?? PvCOp J DlC kpG ok
pNyDF Np w , oDC F
?! lzDF kpG J kh CND F PvC A qC
?? lpe DA qC DCpC DFDO Z

 

oDGN C qC DvpJ DF lz VC   ,ϵ-DOVC DOpJ J ok

"DOVC ANoߡ Coz"" wCp ok 1984 Dv ok kF

ClءCk Dz   ,(Conseil consultatif national de l'thique)

,lzDF (!Pw Ck k ,DkC ) ϵ D DOzo ok ClءlC

.lz ǡN

C ok ,PvC "Noߡ"  ,PvClJ D qC DZ ,Coz C Z pC

A p h pF DoDJ PvC "oDOC qC ok" lzDF wCpoDwF A Co

kp oDǾC) Cpk kp D ok Coz C "oq" kp oAkD lDF .lk Co

.koCl kh (DdC) Į kpFJ CpF pC b p .PvC (DA DlD

 

,uDz Pwq-H lءCk yqoCDF DoD qC oDOz C qC orF oDJ

.PvCOp o Jean-Pierre Changeux ,lzDF CpkD wϾp qC

.Pp oD kh F qDOF PzCk l pF Co Coz C kppv DDv C

: PvC A pF kporF C

,l rpJ OzCkoDF pǾ kvA Dz F kDOC ok qC lءCk p"

Vp p kpko ok yN PvC h DF Ci F FDOvk DCh

OD CpF yN ok kh pDos ok lDF ,koCk (mtaphysique)"GDwJ"

".lzDF kh NC G DDJ

(llC kD ,238 e) (.PvC "tDz"qC G sC o pF oDDJ)

 

Dd DVA .PvC kG pFF ClءlC Z kV qC CpC ,D DkCq

: l

Pw D C qC p D Ppzok     /   Ch Z p oCqA J ok yDG

b "Ppz" C OGC ) .l kh oDOo EZoDZ GN rWF oD

  DOVC lq yo Co Aܷ F ,koCl k F "pz" DF Fo

.PvC pCp ,"D" qClC Z DN Dd "d" C l Pk .(lzDF

.koCl DhDq D DV F OwFC b ܷ

.lA Pvok A ko ok PD DF pz v

 

: kz lF ykDp PvC oDOo A F VN DF Pvok ,xKv

! upK ,CkD kp qC pF Odq  /  Pw J ok w oCqA - pV F

383 e ,Dz Dd

DJ pF) Ck (G) DDJ WOwV ,DF pN qC xJ DN

jvDJ DOdC ,oDOo Cp A CpF , (qo OvCo DOwCk

: kz Cp pq vpJ F kCk PGS

,hC pO DDJ OD DC DA"

"? koCk kV pF CV DN CpF zo   

 

.lk D Co tJ v (ϵ ) DDJ PD qC PhDz

.kCk J qC F PC pF MDvDwdC ,oDǾC pNCDJ F lDF

DCN CoCk (Dk DW p ok) o߷z DF DwC p Ck D S

.lzDF (kh P ok kh wWN) "pk DVF kh lk"

:  (733 e) Ck D

lz Cl PNoq DF fw k qC J p 5 kld ok uv߿

".lwK Cpk F lwJ kh F Co aA" : P

ok Pp kz llJ C qC CDJ "D D A" CpF DS

: PvC "kDApDd" D p

".Cpk F qlCV lF ,MkiF qv C"

k qC Ow) lOvC C F okD D Dv DwC p

.lzDF (p.... p F pC

d DSC orF W qC lCN pF lk D ب ok C

.l F kDOvC D DlN ok lz OzDGC

DwC Pzpv rV aA PhDz ok ,Os Z , DCk qC CoDJ

.lk D Co kh AoD lCN lzDF

DF vDzPwq ClءCk qDOF ,"pk DV F kh lk" ko ok DS CpF

.lkp PFDR Co "oC A" (neurones) G Dv kV rDKz o FpWN

C lDz C Z kp Pvk ok Co rZ rDKz kh Z PvC C o߲

(C r qC oDJ D ok) DG D Pvok ,lzDF (pkrDKz vF)

(wWN) yoDC ok rDKz PvC C F PvokC .lz peN

.koCl ǡ b khDWF pk

 

.pCo qDN ,Ck Co ok CkD OvolF pnKF (!DDh) DNp lDF

.G CpF PG qC CODFClV ODN Co ,DwC ,kh

Co Cpk ) PG DF (kol) we Z Dt kߡF lDz

d ,A DF lC kCqA ,kol C ypOw (kz Dz

DWJ Dwd (DoC) MDN DF G C kCkOzA CpF yN ,kF

.kpz DwC Pzpv qC CoDJ  Co

 

.PvC A D ok (lq) Ow D p pnKF os C F lDF

 

,ϵ ,tJ Z ,(PG )pF qpF lDF CpF ,Dd pF

jN D pF Co lq "OivDV" DF  vDvC  DkDN ,p .PvC prD

CpZ C F pN CpF .koA CN kDq D ,oDF C ok .l

O ,koCk J ok MCqDW kh p O CpZ" : llF CDJ

"!! kp oCp ߡN ko ,V ok ,Dw oߡlpz

 


 

: (ethics) "PwDz" (morale) "hC" DsC

 

pDF (D F pk ,N F ) DsC C k p ,qDA ok lDz

,k A kClV ,lF oDF ok k p q Z pC .lCkF rZ

,qpC ,loCk kF pCp ,DkC D ,l CoCk k p lzDF

Co NDO M ,k C ,Kant PD J ok ,DOVC lzo pRC ok

.lOw r pO DpOw CoCk Z pC .lp pF ok

kV D Clkph F ,DsC C pN pv pF PwCk lDF Dd pF

iz lC pDos F Co D lCN Cpq ,! pOF Z lDz ,koCl

.l ߡN

 


 

C lV ,1354 v IDZ lCo Np DN ,CpC DOVC joDN qC


: lzDF ǡ

 

CpC ok ,ZA qC  oDOz C" C O F qD DA

?? kz lk "PvC ok Dvp ,lA kp pv pF qpC vC

 

١Z F rC k xF DllJ ,oDvClh DOvk DkohpF PpF qC Z pC

DF ohz qC xJ oChECpz DCV kF lk kh Ovk : loh

! lkCk jvDJ DZDzDN MDvDwdC F (!qpJ D F) Pvk kCk DN

GV OGC .kpnJ DV PvC lC lDKZ orF qC pd DWC ok

yk F A oDF ) PzCk ok p qC CN r Co llJ C lwJD

! l D "lrF z Cp ݿ" F ,oDF C ok .(PvC kv DlCN

.kpF D vDv DClq "EDO EDwdF" PFGe qC lDF pk DS CpF

ok) .PvC l DF DA DO lC ok pDos DJ pF OFGe

DG CozDF llzlrpF Dw ,1378 CpN pz Coz MDFDiOC

D F DGCoz ,kh D PpF qC , C F .lOzCk "ǡ"

( ! PvC lvo "oCsC lEDiOC"C


: Cp kDv

 

Co ة Z ,p Dqo DF O ok koD so J lZ

"w" Co kh qDN ,lzDFkp lq wCp ok DDv w .kF kp DF

(.Pw F CkD CpwJC ,PDdpOFok ,"llC" Z ,lClF

wCp Pw Erd vo w DlZ "Ե" C A pNCp

(!lW rZD r ok Z A) DoDC qC PC DVA .PvC kF

! Dd ,ko pNCp


: PvCOp o

 

Pp kDOvC C pF CDJ l "oDiOC" C pFCpF ok rZD loD Dd C DF

!! l kDOwC lCN (!kp oCrvDKv C qC PpnJ Co C O kDOvC )

(! PvC J ok qCok Co Dh F lvo DN q kz Z)

.l D ,DDFq qDF pF ,wCp Phok F kDOvC uok lZ CpF